Theme: Temporal bone. Maxilla. Palatine bone. Nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, bones. Inferior nasal concha, vomer, mandible. Hyoid bone.


Aim. To study structure of the temporal bone and its parts, to elucidate way of the canals.

To study structure, location and correlation viscerocranium elements with adjacent bones of face.


Professional orientation of students: knowledge the structure of temporal bone and its parts allows to understand morphological peculiarities of cavities for external, middle and internal ear, passage the cranial nerves also important vessels. The correct structure and position of temporal bone are very important for normal functioning of hearing and balansing sensority, innervating different organs. knowledge the structure of facial portion of the skull allows to understand morphological peculiarities of cavities for eyes, nose, mouth, pharynx and cranial nerves also important vessels, action of the mastication and neck muscles. The correct structure and position of viscerocranium elements are very important for normal functioning of oral digestive and respiratory organs. Understanding the structure is a fundamental base for the neurosurgical, and therapeutical practice also traumatology and ENT specialist.


Basic Level.

Structure of thoracic vertebrae, roman (Latin) terminology.


I.                  Practical work  – 9:00-12:00 am (4 hours)


1)    Illustrative materialss:



Temporal bone.



Training video.

Training X-ray film, CT scans and MRI.


2)    Methodology of Practical Class.

   Work 1.. Studying anatomy of temporal bone

After the consultation, using textbooks and atlases, to learn an anatomy of temporal bones on separate preparations, sections and on skull.

    Work 2: . Studying anatomy of facial skull

After the active teacher’s consultation, using textbooks and atlases, to learn an anatomy of facial skull bones on separate preparations and on skull.


3)    Demonstrate on preparations:

Skull: topografy of the temporal fossa.

Temporal bone: petrous, tympanic and sguamous parts. Petrosguamous, petrotympanic, tympanomastoid, tympanosguamous fissure. Petrous part: surfaces, grooves, foramens, fossas, processes. Tympanic part: external acoustic opening. Sguamous part: margins, surfaces, grooves, processes. Canals: carotid, musculotubal, facial; canaliculus: for chorda tympani, tympanic, mastoid.

Temporal bone: facial canal, walls of the tympanic cavity, osseous labyrinth.

Skull: base.

Maxilla: body, orbital, infratemporal, nasal and anterior surfaces. Frontal process, alveolar process, palatine and zygomatic process.

Palatine bone: horizontal and perpendicular plate; ethmoid and conchal crests; orbital, sphenoidal and pyramidal processes; palatine canal.

Mandible: body, base, mental protuberance, mental spine; digastric, sublingual and submandibular fossaes; mylohyoid line, alveolar arch, dental alveoli, interalveolar septa, alveolar yokes. Ramus of the mandible: angle, masseteric and pterygoid tuberosity, coronoid process, mandibular notch, mandibular foramen, condylar process, head and neck of the mandible.

Zygomatic bone: lateral, temporal and orbital surfaces; temporal and frontal process; zygomaticofacial, zygomaticoorbital and zygomaticotemporal foramens.

Nasal bone: ethmoid groove.

Lacrimal bone: posterior lacrimal crest, lacrimal groove.

Inferior nasal concha: lacrimal, maxillar and ethmoidal processes.

Vomer: wing of the vomer.

Hyoid bone: body, greater and lesser horns.


I.                  II. Seminar discussion 12:30 am – 14:00 pm (2 hours)


1) Special attention should be paid to the following questions:

1.    What cavities does temporal form and what organs does it contain?

2.    Describe the topography of the temporal bone.

3.    What parts does temporal bone consist of?

4.    What formations separate parts of the temporal bone each other?

5.    What part of the temporal bone has a difficult structure?

6.    What margins and surfaces does pyramid have?

7.    What anatomical formations are located in pyramid?

8.    Demonstrate tympanic cavity.

9.    Describe the structure of squamous part.

10.  Describe the structure of the mastoid process.

11.  What skull bones is maxilla border up?

12.  What cavities does maxilla form?

13.  What parts does maxilla have?

14.  What surfaces does maxilla have? What anatomical formations are located in them?

15.  What surface of the maxilla is maxillary sinus dislocated? What its practical importance?

16.  Infra-orbital canal, its topography, foramina, practical importance.

17.  What parts do they distinguish in mandible?

18.  Describe the structure of mandible body and demonstrate anatomical formations.

19.  What formations do mandible branches have?

20.  What formations are dislocated in alveolar arch?

21.  Where is mandible angle found?

22.  Where are entrance and exit orifices of the mandible dislocated?

23.  What formations does palatine border?

24.  What parts do they distinguish in palatine? What formations are dislocated in it?

25.  How are greater and lesser palatine canals?

26.  What do belong to small bones of scull?

27.  Where are dislocated zygomatics and what do they border with?

What surface and formations does zygomatic have? What fossa and cavities does


ІІІ. Independent students work  – 14:15 – 15:00 pm



а) basic


1.     Atlas of Human Anatomy/ Frank H. Netter,- 5  edition, - 2011 by Saunders, an Imprint of Elsevior Inc.

2.     Gray's Anatomy for Students: With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 2e, - 2010. 2092 p.  Richard L. Drake Ph.D, A. Wayne Vogl, Adam W.M. Mitchell, – Printed in Canada.

3.      Materials preparation for lectures

4.     Materials preparation for practical classes


    b) additional

1.     Human anatomy & physiology /Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn., San Francisco : Benjamin Cummings, c2010., 8th ed.

2.     F.H. Netter. Atlas of Human Anatomy. – Cіba Pharmaceutіcals Dіvіsіon, 1994. – 514 p.

3.     Synelnіkov R.D. The atlas of anatomy of the man. Іn 4-th volumes. -: Medіcіna, 1991.

4.     Reminetskyy B.Y., Fedonyuk Y.I. Human anatomy. Notes. 136 p.

5.      Lectures.





Methodical instructions have been prepared by: Assistant Prof. A.V.Miz

The instruction was discussed and confirmed at the department meeting

12.06.2013. Protocol number 11


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