Theme: Skull as the whole. Calvaria and basis of skull. Bony palatine. Temporal, infratemporal, pterygopalatine fossae. Orbit. Nasal cavity. Structural features of skull depending on age and gender. Sizes of skull.


Aim: To study the scull, topography and structure of the cranial fossae, temporal, infratemporal, pterygopalatine fossae.

To study age features of the skull, topography and structure of the orbit and nasal cavity.

To study the structure of humerus. To find, term and show carpal bones and hand in preparations, discribe their structure.


Professional orientation of students: knowledge the structure of the skull allows to understand morphological peculiarities of cavities for brain and most importanr nerves and vessels. Understanding the structure is a fundamental base for the neurosurgical and therapeutical practice also traumatology and ENT specialist.

Knowledge the structure of orbit and nasal cavity allows to understand morphological peculiarities of cavities for eyes and nose, passage the cranial nerves also important vessels. The age features of the scull are very important for normal birth process and necessary in obstetric practice.

Knowledge the structure of the Humerus Radius, Ulna, bones of the wrist and the hand allow to understand morphological peculiarities of locomotory apparatus of upper limb. The correct structure and position of the bones are very important for normal functioning of nerves, vessels and muscles.


Basic Level. roman (Latin) terminology.


I.                  Practical work  – 9:00-12:00 am (4 hours)


1)    Illustrative materialss:



Base of the skull.

Training video.

Training X-ray film, CT scans and MRI.


2)    Methodology of Practical Class.


Work 1. Studying of topography

After the active teacher’s consultation, using textbooks and atlases, to learn a skull’s topography.

Work 2. Studying of skull’s topography

After the active teacher’s consultation, using textbooks and atlases, to learn skull’s topography, structure of foetal skull.

Work 3. Study anatomy of forearm and hand bones

Independently, after the active teacher consultation, using textbooks and atlases, to learn a humerus, forearm and hand bones anatomy on separate preparations and on skeleton.


Individual Students Program – 9:00-11:15 am (3 hours)


3)    Demonstrate on preparations:

Skull: border between skullcap and base, cranial suture.

Base of the skull: temporal and infratemporal fossa. Anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossa. Greater palatine and incisive canals, hard palate. Lacerum and jugular foramen, clivus. Pterygopalatine fossa: walls and its connections.

Skall of a newborn: anterior, posterior, sphenoidal and mastoid fontanels.

Orbit: walls and connections. Paranasal sinuses.

Nasal cavity: walls, superior, midle and infirior nasal meatus, connections.

Humerus: formations are disposed in proximal and distal epiphysis and body.

Formations are disposed in proximal epiphysis of the radius and ulna.

Formations are disposed in distal epiphysis distal epiphysis

Departments of the hand.

Rows of the carpal bones.


I.                  II. Seminar discussion 12:30 am – 14:00 pm (2 hours)

1) Special attention should be paid to the following questions:

1.    Name and show departments of cranium.

2.    Demonstrate border between calvaria and basicranium.

3.    What suture do you know?

4.    What bones belong to viscerocranium?

5.    What bones belong to neurocranium?

6.    What formations build anterior cranial fossa? Borders and connections of the anterior cranial fossa?

7.    What bones form middle cranial fossa, its borders and connections?

8.    What bones form posterior cranial fossa, its borders and connections?

9.    What formations border temporal fossa?

10.  Where is infratemporal fossa situated and what formations border it?

What formations build pterygopalatine fossa and its connections.

12. What walls and connections does orbit have?

13. What formations build orbit walls, roof and floor?

14. What walls does nasal cavity have and what formations build them?

15. What nasal meatus do you know, what formations border them?

16. What cavities open into each nasal meatus?

17. What formations build bony palate?

18. What fontanelles are there in foetal scull?

19. Where do fontanelles heal?

20. What department of the upper limb does humerus belong to?

21. What bones do humerus epiphysises join with?

22. How distinguish right humerus from left one?

What formations are there in proximal and distal humerus epiphysises?

Which groove is situated in humerus diaphysis?

24. How many bones are there in forearm region? Term them.

25. In what position of upper limb forearm bones are arranged parallel?

26. What position do radius and ulna occupy (medial / lateral)?

27. What parts do they distinguish in each forearm bones?

28. How distinguish right bone from left one?

29. What formations are there in proximal and distal radius epiphysises?

30. What formations are there in proximal and distal ulna epiphysises?

31. In what position of the forearm can they grope for olecranon?

32. What surfaces and margins do they distinguish in hand?

33. How many bones are there in hand?

34. What departments does hand have and how many bones form them?

35. How are disposed carpal bones?

36. In what surfaces can they feel the pisiform?

37. In what surfaces can they feel the capitate and hamate?

38. What structure of the metacarpals?

39. What and how many phalanges are there?


Independent students work   14:15 – 15:00 pm




а) basic


1.     Atlas of Human Anatomy/ Frank H. Netter,- 5  edition, - 2011 by Saunders, an Imprint of Elsevior Inc.

2.     Gray's Anatomy for Students: With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 2e, - 2010. 2092 p.  Richard L. Drake Ph.D, A. Wayne Vogl, Adam W.M. Mitchell, – Printed in Canada.

3.      Materials preparation for lectures

4.     Materials preparation for practical classes


    b) additional

1.     Human anatomy & physiology /Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn., San Francisco : Benjamin Cummings, c2010., 8th ed.

2.     F.H. Netter. Atlas of Human Anatomy. – Cіba Pharmaceutіcals Dіvіsіon, 1994. – 514 p.

3.     Synelnіkov R.D. The atlas of anatomy of the man. Іn 4-th volumes. -: Medіcіna, 1991.

4.     Reminetskyy B.Y., Fedonyuk Y.I. Human anatomy. Notes. 136 p.

5.      Lectures.





Methodical instructions have been prepared by: Assistant Prof. A.V.Miz



The instruction was discussed and confirmed at the department meeting

12.06.2013. Protocol number 11


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