Practical exercises

Practical exercises

Theme 10


Medical electronic information resources. Internet. Familiarity with the work of «Medline».


Internet (written with a capital letter, from the English. Internet, literally - "firewalls") -  worldwide system of computer networks combined, based on the use of IP and routing of data packets. Internet creates a global information space serves as a basis for physical access to the websites of many systems (protocols) data. Often referred to as a "global network" or "global network".


Today in the use of the word "Internet" often means just web and information available through it, not the physical network, resulting in a variety of legal conflicts and legal consequences. In English, if the word «internet» written with a lowercase letter, it simply means combining networks (born interconnected networks) via routing of data packets. In this case refers to the global information space. In our technical literature also sometimes make such distribution concepts.

Publication - 1) to the public through the press, radio, television or Internet, 2) the inclusion in editions of the work, and 3) the text printed in any publication. Publications serve several functions:

1) publish the results of scientific research;

2) promote the priority of the author (date of signing of the publication to print - a priority date of the scientist, in the historiography of the dissertation and abstract must indicate when he first turned to the development of scientific problems);

3) indicate the investigator's personal contribution to the development of scientific problems (especially important with individual publications, works in collaboration require additional clarification, the text of the dissertation and abstract applicant shall submit a link to their own publications to include them in the list of sources used);

4) serve to verify the accuracy of the main results and conclusions of the thesis, novelty and scientific level it (since after the release of the publication becomes the object of study and evaluation of a broad scientific community);

5) confirm the fact of testing and implementation of results and conclusions of the thesis;

6) reflect the essence of the thesis (as indicated in the introduction to the dissertation and abstract, as well as the inclusion of publications applicant to the list of published works on the thesis);

7) the novelty and high level of scientific papers, which published the results of the thesis, is one of the main evaluation criteria of the research;

8) completion of a fixed phase of the study or work in general;

9) provide the primary scientific information society, notify the scientific community about the emergence of new scientific knowledge;

10) convey the individual result in the public domain and so on.

Of particular importance are scientific publications that were published in the form of publications.

ISO 3017-95 defines publication as a document that was editing and publishing study made printing, embossing or otherwise, contains information intended for dissemination, and meets state standards and other regulations on publishing design and printing performance.

Science is publishing the results of theoretical and / or experimental studies, as well as trained scientists for publication of cultural artifacts, historical documents and historical texts. It is designed for professionals and research.

Among the scientific publications distinguish two groups:

1) research;

2)  sources.

The first group of scientific publications include:

monograph - research and book publication of a full research problem or topic that belongs to one or more authors;

abstract thesis - scientific publication as a brochure essay author of the study, which is given for the degree;

preprint - scientific publications with preliminary materials, which are published in the publication of the edition in which they must be contained;

Abstracts and Materials Conference - Collection aperiodic up the conference, reports, results and decisions;

Scientific Papers - Proceedings of the studies carried out in research institutions, universities and scientific societies.

The second group of sources of scientific publications are publications, documentary or scientific publication containing monuments and historical documents that were textological processing, with notes, introductory articles, support boards and other elements of scientific publications Help system. In terms of isolated two types of non-periodical publications of scientific: Book (book publishing with over 48 pages) and pamphlet (book edition volume of 4 to 48 pages). Status of scientific publication requires strict adherence to publishing design publication. To specify a key. Masthead - a set of data describing the issue and intended for its design, bibliographic processing, statistical records and inform the reader. The elements of the initial information is: information about the authors or others who participated in the creation of publication, title (name) edition; nadzaholovni data; pidzaholovni data, numbers, output, storage code edition, code UDC, BBK index, author mark, design annotated a catalog card, a sign of protection of copyright, international standard number ISBN; final data. Baseline data include: location registration publication name, publisher or organization that owns the right of publication, and year (in the bottom of the cover sheet). In the final data indicate the date of the original in preparation; date of the publication to print, paper size and proportion worksheet, type and number of the paper, the font of the text, printing, publication volume in conventional printing sheets that are given to the format of the paper sheet 60 × 90 cm, the volume of publication in Accounting and publishing worksheets, order number printing company, the name and complete mailing address of publisher and printing company. Final data are placed on the last page of the publication or the back cover sheet. Of particular difficulty is determining the status of scientific articles. Please note that newspaper articles do not qualify as scientific. Also, problematic is the allocation to the category of scientific articles published in the socio-political and popular science magazines. Articles of scientific nature published mostly in scholarly journals or collections. Journal - a magazine that contains articles and research materials of theoretical or applied nature, intended mainly for specialists a science. By purposeful scientific journals are divided into scientific and theoretical, scientific, practical and scientific methodology. Of particular importance for scientific articles are competitors of scientific degrees of Doctor or Candidate. In addition to these, they must meet the following requirements is:  Articles are published in leading scientific journals and other periodicals professional journals. The list approved by the SCC of Ukraine with the following:  Presence in the editorial board of at least five doctors from the appropriate field, including the need to be regular employees of academic institutions, organizations or university that publishes the magazine; Magazines signed  only on the recommendation of the Academic Council research institution (organization or institution), which issues, as indicated in the initial data;  Circulation not less than 100 copies;  Full compliance with the requirements for editorial design periodical by State Committee of Ukraine;  Availability of the journal in the library of Ukraine approved the list of SCC of Ukraine. 2. Publication no more than one article applicant on the thesis in one issue (issue) magazine. 3. Do not count labor, in which there is no complete description of the scientific results, confirming their authenticity, or where duplicate results previously published in other scientific studies which are a basic list. By the methods used in empirical and theoretical levels of research include, as a rule, abstraction, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, simulation and others. Abstraction - a mental distraction of non-essential, non-essential attributes of objects and phenomena, connections and relations between them and the selection of multiple parties who are interested researcher. Abstraction is one of the parties, forms of knowledge, when the transition from sensory perception to mental images. Sometimes abstracted and related properties associated with known classes of objects ("metal", "integer", "plant"). In other cases they uyavlyayutsya isolation of those things that they really are inextricably linked ("value", "Beauty," "morality"). Abstraction highlights the phenomenon of a certain party in the "pure", ie the same form in which it really does not exist. For example, there are no "events" or "law" in general, there are specific laws and events. But without the introduction of an abstract concept of "phenomenon" the researcher is able to deeply understand any particular phenomenon. The process of abstraction goes two steps. First stage: Selection of important phenomena and installation of Independence or something weak dependence of the phenomena studied by several factors (if object A does not depend directly on factor B, it can distract from the latter as insignificant). Second stage: it is that one object is replaced by another, simpler, which acts as "model" first. Abstraction can be applied to real and abstract objects (those that have previously gone abstraction). Multistage abstraction leads to the abstractions of the growing degree of generalization.

The main objectives of the National Scientific and Technical Information.

The main objectives of the national scientific and technical information are:

- formation on the basis of domestic and foreign sources of reference and information collection, including bases and data banks and information for businesses and individuals;

- receiving, processing, storage, distribution and use of information obtained during the research, experimental design, engineering and technology, industrial and public activities of legal entities and individuals;

- organization proceeds to Ukraine, processing, storage and dissemination of foreign scientific and technical information by studying the global information market;

- preparation of analytical materials required to make public bodies, local and regional self-government solutions for scientific, technical, economic and social development;

- analytical and synthetic treatment of primary sources, abstracting publications and unpublished sources in Ukraine scientific-technical and economic information, creation on this basis and distribution of information products and services;

- development and implementation of modern technologies in scientific and information activities;

- Organization promoting and facilitating the widespread use of science and technology, advanced manufacturing experience;

- a network of public libraries, information centers for public use as a base for education, production and research of the rights of citizens to cultural and professional development.

Information Resources of the National Scientific and Technical Information

1. Information resources of the national system of scientific and technical information of a set of reference and information collection with the necessary reference and search tools and appropriate methods of storage, processing and transmission, which is in the ownership, possession, use of public services and scientific and technical information, research and libraries, commercial centers, enterprises, institutions and organizations.

2. Information resources of scientific and technical information that is publicly owned, public resources are recognized scientific and technical information. Their distribution among the various governmental bodies, agencies, institutions and procedures of exchange can be regulated at the national and departmental solutions via authorized by the structure.

3. In supplement the information resources of the national system of scientific and technical information involved physical and legal entities of Ukraine regardless of ownership. Thus the legislation of Ukraine may be set mandatory rules of participation (other than that sold on a contractual basis). The use of organs and agencies of scientific and technical information referred to them by enterprises and organizations of materials and technical documents is carried out under conditions imposed by companies and organizations - the owners of these materials, except as otherwise provided by law. Authorities and service scientific and technical information that is transmitted such information, ensure the protection of intellectual property rights, the observance of trade secrets, protection of the legitimate interests of legal and natural persons - founders of information on scientific and technical achievements.

4. Use in a resource of scientific and technical information of works of literature, art and science may be subject to copyright. This provision also applies to software computer technology and automated information systems.

History of the Internet In 1969, the U.S. Department of Defense launched a development project, which aimed to create a reliable system of data transmission in case of war. U.S. Agency for Advanced Studies (English ARPA) of the proposed design for a computer network. Its development was entrusted to the University of California Los Angeles, Stanford Research Center, University of Utah and the University of California at Santa Barbara. This network was called ARPANET (born Advanced Research Projects Agency Network - Networking Advanced Research Agency). The project brought together a network named institutions, all work on its creation funded by the U.S. Department of Defense. Then the network ARPANET started to grow and develop, it increasingly began to use scientists from different fields of science. The first server ARPANET was established September 1, 1969 at the University of California at Los Angeles. Computer «Honeywell 516" had 12 kilobytes of memory. By 1971, the first program was developed for sending e-mail through the network, which immediately became very popular. In 1973, due to the transatlantic cable was connected first foreign organizations from the UK and Norway, became an international network. In 1970 the network is mainly used for sending e-mail, but then appeared the first mailings lists, newsgroups and bulletin boards. But in those days the network is not able to easily interact with other networks that were built on other technical standards. By the end of the 1970s began to actively develop data transfer protocols that have been standardized in the years 1982-1983. January 1, 1983 network ARPANET switched from NCP protocol to protocol TCP / IP, which is still successfully used for interconnection. It was in 1983 for the ARPANET entrenched term "Internet".

In 1984, has developed a system of domain names (English Domain Name System, DNS). Then in the ARPANET appeared serious contender - U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) established inter-university network NSFNet (English National Science Foundation Network), which was formed from smaller networks, including known at the time Usenet and Bitnet and had a much higher bandwidth than ARPANET. This network includes year about 10,000 computers, the title "Internet" began to slowly move to NSFNet. In 1988, it was invented Protocol Internet Relay Chat (IRC), through which the Internet was made possible real-time communication (chat). In 1989 in Europe, within the walls of the European Centre for Nuclear Research (French Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire, CERN) was born the concept of the snare. It is suggested that the famous British scientist Tim Berners-Lee, he worked for two years over HTTP, hypertext mark up language HTML and identifiers URI. In 1990, the network ARPANET ceased to exist, losing competition NSFNet. Then there were the first connection to the Internet over telephone lines. In 1991, the snares are available online, and in 1993 appeared the famous web browser (born web-browser) NCSA Mosaic. The World Wide Web has become increasingly popular. In 1995 NSFNet returned to the role of research networks, routing all Internet traffic is now engaged in network providers (providers) rather than supercomputers of the National Science Foundation. In the same year, Tenet became the main provider of information on the Internet, surpassing the volume of traffic on the File Transfer Protocol FTP; was formed by the World Wide Web Consortium (born WWW Consorcium, W3C). We can say that snare transformed the Internet and created it a modern look. Since 1996, the World Wide Web almost completely replaced the concept of an "Internet". During the 1990s, the Internet combines most of the then existing networks (although some, such as FidoNet, have remained separate). Due to the lack of a single control center, as well as through open technical standards for the Internet, which automatically made the network independent of the business or government, association looked incredibly appealing. By 1997 the Internet there were about 10 million computers and there were over a million domain names. The Internet has become a very popular means of sharing information. In 1998, Pope John Paul II established the World Day for the Internet September 30. Currently Internet has become accessible not only through computer networks but also via satellite communications, radio, cable TV, telephone lines, cellular networks, special fiber optic lines and electrical wires. World Wide Web has become an integral part of life in developed countries and countries that are developing. In 2000, there were about 327 million users, of which only U.S. number exceeded 100 million people. In 2004,  700 million Internet users, and soon their number will increase to 1 billion The number of sites, which was in 1993, 26 thousand, now exceeds 5 million. In 2005, the entire Earth is estimated to have over 77 million children and teenagers who use the Internet.  Key principles of the Internet Internet consists of many thousands of corporate, academic, government, and home networks. Combining the architecture of heterogeneous networks has become possible due to protocol IP (English Internet Protocol) and the principle of routing data packets. IP protocol has been specifically designed agnostic with respect to physical channels. That is, any digital data network can transmit Internet traffic. At the junction of networks involved in sorting special routers and redirect data packets based on the IP addresses of the recipients of these packages. The protocol forms a single IP address space across the world, but each individual network can be your own address subspace. This arrangement allows IP addresses uniquely identify routers future direction for everyone, even the slightest, the data packet. As a result, between different Internet networks there are no conflicts and data accurately and smoothly passed from network to network across the globe. IP protocol itself was born in the discussions within the organization IETF (born Internet Engineering Task Force, Task force - a group of professionals, is designed to solve a specific task), whose name can be translated as "the Group to meet the challenges of designing Internet." IETF and its working groups are still engaged in the development of the World Wide Web protocols. It is open to public participation and debate. Committees of the organization publishing the so-called documents RFC (born Request for Comments - comments requested). These documents are given to the technical specifications and accurate explanations so many issues. Some of RFC organization IAB (born Internet Architecture Board - Board for Architecture Internet) announces web standards. Since 1992, IETF, IAB and several other organizations form the Internet Society (English Internet Society, ISOC) - the organizational basis for various research and advisory groups dealing with the development of the Internet. According to many scholars the Internet is the beginning of a new era of development and improvement of the international system of the Internet. Internet Protocol In this case, the protocol - a way to interact and exchange data between computers on the network at work. To different computers could work together, they must "speak the same language",  use the same protocols. The combination of these protocols are called protocol stack TCP / IP. Below, in alphabetical order are listed the most common network protocols according to the model OSI:

1. At the application level:







o POP3



o Telnet

o XMPP (Jabber)

2. At the session level:



3. At the transport layer



4. At the network level




o IP





5. At the data link layer

o Ethernet

o Frame relay




In addition there are a number of non-standardized yet, but already quite popular protocols. Typically, this decentralized file sharing protocols and text messaging, some of them built entire file-sharing networks. These protocols such as:






Internet Service

Currently the most popular services of the Internet are:


Web forums


Wikis (including Wikipedia)

Online Stores

Online auctions

Online Event

E-mail and mailing lists

Newsgroups (basically, Usenet)

File-sharing networks

Electronic Payment Systems

Internet Radio

Internet TV


Messaging system



Subculture Internet

The modern Internet is also a lot of social and cultural facets. It is a universal medium for communication, entertainment and education. The Internet has become possible to make purchases and pay for services. For many people the Internet - a way of earning. On the whole Internet - a reflection of modern society and worldview. Internet Society The Internet offers opportunities for communication, it is easy to find people with similar interests, hobbies and outlook. In addition, the network psychologically easier to communicate, rather than in person. These reasons lead to the creation and development of active online communities - groups of people with common interests who communicate primarily through the Internet. These companies are gradually playing an increasingly important role in all modern societies. Internet Addiction With the growing popularity of the Internet have become manifest and negative aspects of its application. In particular, some people are so fond of virtual space that holds the computer 18 hours a day. This dependence of many compare to smoking or drug addiction. Definition of Internet addiction is: "It is the desire to get online while off-line, and the inability to get out of the Internet, while on-line». According to various studies, today internet is dependent on about 10% of users worldwide. Experts have developed a technique to get rid of this addiction.  Online dating Dating online is usually associated with entertainment or finding a man abroad. Both areas often become a kind of addiction. It is very rare to find a dating service that performs exceptionally serious relation for marriage, including dating for Christians, or, in general, people with traditional views on marriage.  Trolling Trolling - a psychological and social phenomenon that originated on the Internet during the 1990s. Internet trolls or trolls called the World Wide Web of people specially published provocative articles or posts (forums, newsgroups Usenet ), whose purpose - to cause conflicts between the parties, Flame, images and more. This article or message also sometimes called trolls, and the process of writing - trolling. Today, any popular resource (forum, newsgroup ) is faced with this phenomenon.


Internet, cyberspace and virtual reality found its mark in contemporary art. In the mid-1980s formed a special genre of science fiction that focuses on computers, hi-tech and problems that arise in society due to the use of the fruits of technological progress. Plot works of this genre is often a struggle hackers from powerful corporations. Genre gained wide popularity in literature, film, graphic works (especially anime) and in computer entertainments. The term coined cyberpunk writer Bruce Bethke, who in 1983 published the same story.

Censorship on the Internet

In some countries, there are serious limitations on the network: at the national level is blocked access to certain websites (English web-sites).


China has so-called "Great Wall of China information» (Great_Firewall_of_China), which blocks the IP addresses of websites "questionable content." This duty to block these sites the Chinese government shifted to local providers. It is significant blockage site «Google», canceled  only in January 2006. However, according to the agreement with the Chinese government, searches for the Chinese people will be "somewhat limited." Prohibited in China and Wikipedia. Interestingly, the Chinese government has done so under the pretext of "propaganda against violence." North


Despite the presence of link to the Internet, North Korea has in its territory available WWW servers, several websites belonging to North Korean government is physically located outside of the country ([1], [2]). However, since 2004, the DPRK is email available a limited number of people. However, the country has not connected to the Internet its own computer network "Kvanmen" ([3]).


In Cuba, the World Wide Web can only use doctors, other citizens of the country it is forbidden by law.


Since 3 December 2006 User Iran was denied access to a number of websites, including Wikipedia, YouTube, IMDb. Considered. this is due to deploy in the country to campaign against corrupting influence of Western culture. Ukrainian segment of the Internet

History of domestic Internet begins in autumn 1990 when George Yankivskoho sector of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Software Technologies Center "Tehnosoft" (director Igor Velbytskyy) connected to the global Internet network, becoming the first Ukrainian party Demos / KIAE (network RELCOM). For practical unavailability of automatic telephone connection in the country, when to send a regular fax took nearly four hours, the ability to not only send emails to the global network in 30 minutes (UUCP), but also to participate in open world forums USENET, was valid information breakthrough for engineers Tehnosoft first, but soon and for many other Internet pioneers from Ukraine. Conquered the idea of Internet engineers Tehnosoft launched the first Ukrainian unit RELCOM, and spring 1991 began to connect subscribers Ukraine. The first party is the Ukrainian segment of the Internet was the organization of Nicholas Roenko (Institute of Cybernetics), and by the end of 1991 node Tehnosoft served customers not only Kyiv and many other cities in Ukraine. History domain (so to speak, "exclusively Ukrainian 'Uanet) Internet begins in autumn 1991 when Ukrainian experts held talks with IANA to allocate to Ukraine's own domain, apart from the general to the former Soviet Union. Su. December 1, 1992 Representative Jonathan Postel IANA delegates Extensions country code. Ua Ukrainian leading Internet experts, elected Online Community - Voloshchuk Oleg and Igor Sviridov. Acting Administrator performed on a voluntary basis. Two-letter country code UA set the international standard ISO 3166 for identifying geographical territory and not a means of identifying the state of Ukraine and / or Ukrainian nation. In January 1993 in a conference Slavskoe Ukrainian Internet Professionals, which was delegated to 27 regional domains - each of the regions of Ukraine and separately for the cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol. 1995 administrator. UA ccTLD delegated trust the public domain COM.UA, GOV.UA, NET.UA. Domain GOV.UA designed to serve government agencies and organizations in Ukraine carrying out their activities in accordance with the current legislation of Ukraine. COM.UA domain is delegated in the interest not previously defined user community. Therefore, public domain COM.UA is both domain general purpose (born generic domain). Third-level domains in the domain NET.UA delegated entities registered in Ukraine and declare provision of network services in Ukraine as the leading activity. Delegated short (two-letter) geographical domains, synonyms ( = et al.). February 21, 2001 informal UA NCG Company Ltd adopts a "Hostmaster" - the entity whose main objective is the practical implementation of the principles of the administrator. UA ccTLD. Current administrators. UA ccTLD - Kokhmanyuk Dmitry and Igor Sviridov, along with other the public domain . UA, are the founders of "Hostmaster". Director of "Hostmaster" is intended Boris Bridge. December 1, 2002 marks 10 years since the official delegation of Ukraine Domain. UA. Over 10 years in 51 public domain been registered over 100,000 domain names and the domain. UA - over 500 individual domain names. In March 2009 the Ukrainian audience of Internet users (users who have more than one page view in March 2009, and the users who viewed pages in March and in the previous month) was 11.96 million, which is 9.4% more than in February 2009. In the regional distribution of users by a considerable margin leads Kyiv on which accounted for 60.14% of all Internet users in Ukraine. Followed Odessa (5.14%), Kharkiv (5.39%), Dnipropetrovsk (4.92%), Donetsk (4.82%), Lviv (2.83%), Crimea (2.80%) Osh (1.80%). The total share of these regions was 24.9%. The remaining regions of Ukraine accounted for 13.26% of users. Outsiders in terms of Internet penetration according to the March 2009 were Lutsk (0.18%), Zhytomyr (0.21%), Chernivtsi (0.32%) and Transcarpathia (0.31%) [1]. In early 2009, in the domain of Ukraine. Ua there were 390,197 names. Site Web Site (born Site, Web-site) - a set of web pages available on the Internet that are integrated in content and navigation. Physically, the site can be placed both on one, and on multiple servers. Site also referred to as a node on the Internet, the computer on which is fixed a unique IP address, and in general any object on the Internet, which is fixed address that identifies it on the network (FTP-site, WWW-site, etc.) . A set of interconnected online information resources for browsing through a computer network using special programs - browsers. Web site can be a set of documents in electronic form, the online service. Internet Archive (Internet Archive) - a non-profit organization located in San Francisco, California, which aims to preserve cultural heritage. Archive maintains an electronic library, archive and multimedia network resources, software, movies, books, and recordings. Archive «Wayback Machine» includes copies of Web pages in different periods of time (usually the 2 places). To ensure the stability of the archive, web archive mirror Online is also stored in the New Library of Alexandria in Egypt. Online archive available for free. Since 2007 is a member of the American Library Association and officially recognized the State of California as a library. Examples from the archives of Wayback Machine:

Apple Computer



BBC News


Open Directory


Wayback Machine is an archive consisting of copies of Web pages, which are taken from Alexa Internet. This archive allows users to see versions of web pages in the form in which they were at different times. Archive Wayback Machine is made available gradually. The time interval from the moment of copying and archiving of web pages at the time when it becomes available at the Wayback Machine can be up to six to twelve months. Alternatively, users who want to archive material and his immediate quote can benefit As of 2006 Wayback Machine contained nearly two petabytes of data, increasing to 20 terabytes each month.  Multimedia resources To use multimedia technologies to develop learning resources in a multimedia environment, or they are called multimedia resources. Define the following groups of multimedia resources:

§ for preschool and junior pupils;

§ general resources at various levels;

§ Resources Special Education.

Each group developed a multimedia resource script, which includes the following components:

1. The list of components and resource issues.

2. Description of the structure of the resource.

3. Description animated pieces.

4. Description of video sequences.

5. Description of the illustration.

6. Description of the relationship between thematic sections.

7. Hypertext links.

The script is written based on the selected software features available starting materials (video, different pictures, sounds, etc.). Develop training scenario involves specific tasks that allow to form a sequence of video page. Moreover, each has a specific combination of video and media elements. In the construction phase scenario developed sketches of illustrations and animated fragments selected sources for video and sound design. In addition to online archives, the Internet Archive maintains an extensive collection of digital media resources that are either public domain or distributed under Creative Commons License or equivalent license that allows free use and distribution. Internet portal (from the English. Portal «the main entrance, Gate") (or portal information portal) - a site that provides the user with various interactive Internet services (Internet services) that work within a single site. Portals also function as the access point to information on the Internet or sites that help users in finding relevant information through the Internet. These portals provide information from different sources or subjects combined method and also called navigation sites. All portals perform search functions, as well as providing Internet services, such as email, news and more. The idea of the portal - the creation or presentation of the critical (maximum) supply of Internet services, which could be to attract as many users, visitors, who will be constantly extended and increased.


Intensive development of portals contributes to a number of software products (portal solutions), allowing to combine into a single space information from various sources. These decisions involve, inter alia, to:

technology SSO (Single Sign On), when the user moves from one section to another portal without re-authorization;

organization of data between different applications involved the user during work with us, and so on.

Classification of specialization information

Horizontal Portal (General portal)

Horizontal portal (or a universal portal, portal general) - is a portal that covers many topics, presents a set of services (catering, if possible, all themes) and is aimed at the widest possible audience to maximize the coverage of its interests. The most famous horizontal portals (by sector Internet) - Yahoo! (English), Yandex, (both - in Russian), (Ukrainian).
These portals typically combines multiple functions, offer diverse content (content) and various services (news, finance, entertainment, gaming, etc.). Vertical portal (Vertical portal), portal-niche (Niche portal) Vertical portal - a web of narrow thematic focus that provides various services for network users to specific interests and focuses on complete coverage of the subject or field of activity. If vertical portal theme is quite interesting, it might get around the so-called "community» (community) - more or less permanent group of people, for example, regularly communicate with each other in a chat portal.  Mixed Portal (Blended portal) Mixed portal - a portal that combines the functions of e-commerce and the classical reference services. Examples of such portals are online shopping. Also mixed portals are those vertical portals, which are beginning to do business in their specialized sections.

Classification focus on users Public Portal

Corporate Portal (Corporate portal, Enterprise portal) Corporate portal - a set of information systems and database companies, organizations or institutions represented on the Internet. Enterprise Portal provides employees of the company (its permanent partners) strictly personalized entrance to its automated control system (information system training decision-making expert system, a system of collaboration, the system business process management, etc.).  Standards Web Services for Remote Portlets (WSRP) - a standard network protocol to communicate with remote Portlet JSR 168 (Java Portlet Definition Standard) defines the contract between portletnym and Portlet container and provides a convenient programming model for portlet developers

The use of the term

Terminology inexperienced users and producers obvious appeal site content positioning their online projects like portals lead to the erosion of the concept. Portals often "call themselves" a great site with an extensive internal structure and lots of links. However, if most of these references - internal (those that send the user to another page on the same site), we call such a site online portal of unnecessarily. Engine - the online service that allows you to search for information sites on the Internet, and (possibly) in discussion groups and ftp-servers. Indexation in search engine sites by bots. The main criteria for the quality of the search engine is the relevance, completeness basis, taking into account the morphology of the language. Popular search engines English-language and international

A 9 (owned by Amazon and is working on the mechanism of Google)

AskJeeves (mechanism Teoma)




Yahoo! and search engines owned by this company:




Alltheweb FAST-Engine









META (meta)






 Specialized Search Engines

Search for files


Search for scientific information


Search for educational information


Russian search engines

Dynamic web page (English dynamic Web page) - Web page content that may change. In the original version there was hypertext navigation between "static" documents. However, over time the sites were added interactivity, and these became known as dynamic pages. Filling (content) of this web page may be replaced depending on certain conditions and / or actions. There are two ways to create dynamic pages:

1. Use scripts that are executed in a user's browser (born client-side scripting) to change page content based on user behaviour. To change not need a full page reload. Using programs running on the server (born server-side scripting) to change the content of the page is transmitted user's browser. Information may vary depending on the data sent in HTML form parameters in the URL, browser type, date, or time of day and other conditions. The result of the use of any technique can be described as a dynamic web page. Pages built the first option is usually used scripting language used for Dynamic HTML (DHTML) - JavaScript or ActionScript. To add video, sound and graphic effects can be applied technology Flash. Since 2005 began to gain popularity technology AJAX, which allows you to deliver information from the server without reloading the page. Pages built on the second option can use scripting languages such as PHP, Perl, ASP, JSP and others. MEDLINE - a database of medical information, including bibliographic descriptions (citations) with more than 4,800 medical periodicals from around the world since the early 1960s. MEDLINE is available free of charge via the Internet to search for both experts and the general public. MEDLINE includes descriptions of articles from medical journals and other periodicals in 30 languages, including Russian (article titles translated into English). Approximately 76% of inventories include abstracts (abstracts). Around 9000 descriptions are entered in MEDLINE each week (over 571,000 per year). On the subject of MEDLINE includes a wide range of industries related to biology and medicine: research and their methodology, clinical practice, Nursing, Dentistry, Pharmacology, Veterinary, and allied disciplines, including medical aspects of biology, zoology, botany and environmental environment.

PubMed - is an electronic retrieval system, developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM).

PubMed searches:

• MEDLINE (Medline)


publishing descriptions of NLM.

 Address:  Detailed description of MEDLINE in English can be found in the fact sheet at NLM:  To help Russian-speaking audience that wants to learn how to search the medical literature are already PubMed, a group of Russian librarians working in medical libraries in the United States, was the best. It includes a brief description of PubMed and its main elements and characteristics of the most important methods of searching system.  Instructions can be used as medical professionals and the general public wishing to gain access to medical information of a scientific article, or popular literature on medical topics. It is important to remember that since the search in PubMed can be conducted in English only, the user must have at least minimal knowledge of English. To help those who does not have medical terminology on the website MedinfoRus is a list of medical dictionaries and reference books. The text instructions at the first mention of a new term is given its name in English. This is done to explore the reader with the major search terminologies and facilitate further reading literature on PubMed.  Instruction is designed to search through the PubMed interface of the original U.S. National Library of Medicine (, National Library of Medicine - NLM). This interface allows you to use different search methods, numerous aids and additional resources related PubMed. Instruction is a subsidiary guide and not intended to replace detailed guide to searching PubMed, prepared by NLM. Guide gives a detailed description of the system and should be used in all cases that require further clarification. Access to it can be obtained from the main search screen PubMed. In addition, links to various manuals, textbooks and other reference materials on the website are in PubMed The word Internet also became a base for a series of neologisms, especially idiomatic (Internet appliance, Internet host, Internet cafe). Accelerate the pace of development, "an Internet world" led, for example, the emergence of the concepts of "The Internet Time" (Net time), "The Internet year" (Internet year). The concept of "The Internet year" arose by analogy to the concept of "dog age" (one dog year equals seven human years). The Internet "gurus" believe that "The Internet year" equal to three months of normal. The word Internet has served as a model for the spread of innovations such as intranet "computer network that connects computers a company", extranet "computer network that connects a company with clients and suppliers." Soon will be a technique that will allow direct and secure communication with the Internet through the use of simple instruments, including even household. This technique (and the system itself is connected to the internet) is denoted by the word . With an international computer network is connected and there was the concept of'' new media'' (new-media), by which to understand the radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, received by the owners of personal computers over the Internet. This is due to the'' new media'' has been extended neologism cybercast'' transmit, display through the Internet'' (porivn.broadcast, telecast), cybersoap "serial melodrama, as demonstrated over the internet." Note also that the latest Information Technology resulted in the emergence of neologism datacasting (data + broadcasting) as a general word for the transmission of any information through the "digital" (digital) network.

 It becomes a reality television with a combination of computer, telecommunication equipment (digital TV, PC-TV, teleputer), a system of interactive television'''' (interactive TV, interactive broadcasting, two way television). This system gives viewers the opportunity to order TV, videos (pay-per-view, video-on demand), buying various products from home. Along with the introduction of "tsyfernoho" and interactive television receives, for example, the spread of the phrase set-top box to indicate an electronic decoder - a device that allows viewers to decode and take the "interactive" computer-TV (translate signals into digital code, "clear" for conventional TV). Recently, it is not just about'''' interactive television and interactive media for'''' (interactive multimedia), the connection with computers other media. This combination will mark the owners of such media diversified range of services. The introduction of computers and other information technology has made dramatic changes in education. It is a computerized education (computer-aided education), which creates conditions for home schooling children (cyberschool, teleschooling), to obtain higher education, higher the degree of'' a'' (distance learning). It is believed that the introduction of computers in school education,'' button or Revolution'' (keyboard revolution), in the near future will make classes'' paperless'' (paperless classroom). More and more universities are equipped by means of computer and telecommunications equipment and becomes a "virtual universities" (virtual university), "multimedia Universities" (multimedia university). In early 2000, more than 650 U.S. universities have a program of training over the Internet, receiving degrees of'' virtual'' (virtual degree).  Moreover, it is believed that by 2025 the U.S. will create a'' virtual education system'' (virtual education system) from kindergarten to graduate school. Internet and library management. Currently the global community of INTERNET combines nearly 35,000 different computer networks, provided access to more than 170 countries, virtually the entire globe. The concept is not new INTERNET and libraries. This is not the one they use its services to meet the information needs of readers and staff. The main services provided by INTERNET network users, can be used in the management of libraries: using e-mail, participate in newsgroups, obtain information from the servers of the world information space, transfer and copying files. E-mail. Email. The most simple and accessible service network INTERNET - messaging between network subscribers by email. Advantages mail:

- The ability to send text messages of great length;

- The speed of communication at any point of the globe;

- No need of having the caller on the other end of the line; - The ability to store electronic copies of the message to the subscriber computer and its subsequent automated processing;

- To transmit messages to multiple subscribers;

- Highly reliable message transmission;

Electronic mail supports a large number of software tools. The most common programs in libraries are Netscape Communicator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. The last part of Windows.

Teleconferences. Teleconferences (foreign term: Conference эhy, forums, roundtables) are designed to get the latest news, discover new people with the same interests, share ideas and opinions, get the necessary consultation. In the INTERNET many networks give users access to the forums. To participate in the conference, users have to "subscribe" to the relevant conference is to send a message to the server that conference. The mode of subscription depends on the nature obtain user information from conference to all the articles of the conference, obtaining items on the user's choice. Prepared messages and other information the server sends the user conference, usually working around the clock.

In the INTERNET organized conferences on virtually all substantive areas of human activity, including bibliographical problems. Unfortunately, Ukraine has only a few librarians forums. The meaning and possibilities of such shapes for libraries and have obvious practical value. The special role of the teleconference can play in the management of the library. For this purpose parallel organization of teleconferences on several levels:

- Departmental (eg teleconference University Libraries on actual directions of their activities);

- Interdepartmental (eg conference of the Ministry of Culture and Arts of Ukraine, providing regulations and documents of the largest libraries of Ukraine);

- Inner (eg forum STL NTU "KPI" inland actual problems).

If the first two levels for libraries Ukraine for several reasons a distant prospect, the third - a reality in which to implement specific libraries there will be technical and human resources.

Servers WWW. The system server WWW (or Web-servers) provides users with a wealth of information, from the decrees and decisions of governments of different countries to weather conditions in the regions of the globe. Virtually no domains, knowledge of which would not be reflected in the system of WWW.

WWW - a source of information for librarians of various kinds: official legislative materials, thematic information, information about companies, libraries and other partners, obtained through their home pages. To use the WWW requires special software (browsers). Libraries used by browsers: MS Internet, Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator. The service is the INTERNET users to:

- Browse directories with other computer programs;

- Copy the files to your PC with text and graphics documents in different programs.

- Send your files to other computers.

Information retrieval systems in the INTERNET. THE INTERNET possess a huge amount of diverse information. This information is constantly updated and increased in volume. Find the user the necessary data to help numerous information retrieval systems (IRS). With ICS you can get an answer as to narrow in thematic terms, a specific request and do a search of any general order.

Challenges and Opportunities

The problem of archiving information resources global networks today partially solve the search engines and directories of Internet resources. They deal with ordering and meta-information about network resources and, in some cases, store key fragments publications. An example of such a system can act as Google, information database which includes data on more than 8 billion documents. This system has a service that provides target detection for Scientific Information (Google Scholar). Resource on scientific information resources has also specialized Internet search engine. This system is more than 200 million indexed articles from scientific journals, Web pages, research institutions and universities and so on. Reflected in these systems and closed (paid) information resources and materials that are to be published. Google Scholar in addition to bibliographic information is also citation index publications on the Internet. However, the task of archiving full-text publications of existing Internet search engines is not solved. This function is characterized libraries for centuries have engaged in processing and dissemination of documented knowledge. Today, they have to expand the cumulative function, expanding it challenges archiving of Internet resources, information value is not subject to time. The organization works to create an archive is crucial to determine the information resources that are subject to archiving. The founders of the National Library insisted that it "must be the most complete manner designed department" Ukraine "; library should be libraries, which must be collected all of the spiritual life of Ukrainian people and the Ukraine (handwritten and printed). It should be collected books, magazines, newspapers, prints, cards, notes, lithographs and other works . The modern concept of the fund "Ucrainica" was proposed at the First Congress of the International Association of Ukrainian Studies (September, 1990). The participants of the congress defined general approach, whereby the fund to be included documents created in Ukraine and in other countries - about it as well as documents created Ukrainian who have made significant contributions to world culture. Later, this approach has been developed by the Institute of Archeology and Source Ukrainian them. Hrushevsky NAS of Ukraine to the operating time of the concept of archival and manuscript Ucrainica.

To achieve this goal, under conditions of limited logistical and human resources and the availability of advanced telecommunications networks to archiving should involve all interested institutions - domestic subjects of documentary research communications (leading branch and regional libraries, information centers, research and academic institutions, etc. ). To the opinion that the basic conceptual foundations of building an integrated system archiving scientific information resources in Ukraine should choose a combination of the principles of decentralized collection and initial processing of brunch fragments and regional information networks with centralized formation consolidated reference and search tools to support the multifaceted use of information resources distributed archive. According to this principle operates several international integrated information systems, which are characterized by the following features:

- The presence of several independent subsystems, so when the central system stops functioning links belonging to it, continue to work, but is less effective;

- General purpose subsystems, based on which to create an integrated system.

A typical example of such a system can be created U.S. National Library of Medicine system analysis and retrieval of biomedical literature MEDLARS, which is based on machine training publications performs medical information service workers. MEDLARS is one of the largest automated national and international industry information retrieval systems. Directly in the U.S. there are more than 100 information centers that are part of this system. In addition, MEDLARS also has regional centers in different countries. For example, automated biochemical data center in Sweden is MEDLARS regional center for the Nordic countries. Member States shall provide a system  MEDLARS bibliographic descriptions of publications. U.S. National Library of Medicine has concluded cooperation agreements with Great Britain (National Science and Technology Library), Sweden (Karolinska Medico-Surgical Institute), France (National Institute of Medicine and Public Health), Germany (German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information), Australia (National Library), Japan (Japan Center for Scientific and Technical Information), as well as Austria, Switzerland and the World Health Organization. Within MEDLARS operating specialized information systems (for toxicology on new drugs and new uses of drugs, etc.).. In general, U.S. National Library of Medicine provides access to 40 databases, which contain about 18 million bibliographic records and full text documents. Some database freely available on the Internet, and to use other required authorization. The online version of MEDLARS called Medline. It contains 11 million records and author abstracts in English, with more than 4,300 biomedical journals U.S. and 70 countries. Stored in an array of images of full texts and formulas of chemical compounds. Medline is a center of research and information network U.S. biomedicine. In Ukraine there was a balanced structure library system, which combines centralized departmental and regional cooperation. As part of this system is seen appropriate to organize the formation of the branch archives of global computer networks in medical, scientific, agricultural, architectural and construction, historical, scientific and educational libraries.  Library leading higher education institutions can focus on core collections archiving networked information resources, and regional universal scientific library - the collection of regional information meetings. National libraries focus on archiving information resources on natural, technical and humanitarian sciences, as well as information about Ukraine and Ukrainian language publications outside the state. They should also take the coordinating function and task of creating a consolidated reference and research staff of the National Archives of network information resources. This unit should implement the scheme, which involves a combination of metadata about the collections of electronic publications in full-text indexing of existing databases in the branch and regional libraries. As an information base for metadata structure naturally choose standard Dublin Core metadata (Dublin Core Metadata), the proposed online computer library center OCLC for describing Internet resources. Dublin Core format vlyuchaye 15 elements for describing electronic resource: the name (title), author (creator), SUBJECT (subject), abstract (description), publisher (publisher), co-author (contributor), date (date), format (format ), type (type), ID (identifier), source (source), tongue (language), attitude (relation), coverage (coverage), authorship rights (rights). Under the rules of Dublin Core each of 15 elements is optional and can be repeated. Description of the use of Dublin Core Internet resources can, in first approximation, be considered as bibliographic descriptions of books or paintings analytical magazine (newspaper). This format is similar to Dublin Core interstate standard GOST 7.1-2003 "Bibliographical Record. Bibliographical Description: General requirements and rules of Drawing." I should add that there are program-size converters with Dublin Core metadata in bibliographic exchange format UNIMARC. In determining the heading of archive research and information resources appropriate to navigate the use of faceted classification, where class numbers are synthesized by combining signs in accordance with faceted form that must include chronological, geographical and thematic facets. Chronological facets define a backup, geographical - the location of the primary site information and thematic - his perspective. As already mentioned, archiving scientific information resource of global information networks has proper legal subsoil due to uncertainty in the international and national laws of human libraries for their operation in an electronic environment. Widespread network of information and ease of printing electronic materials with particular acuteness raised seam problems with respect to copyrights. However, they are often seen as the need to extend the term of copyright, the increase in stiffness penalties for violations and complications technical capacity up information. However, while there is a paradox associated with the emergence of copyright, which occurs at the moment the work is created and can conflict with the author's interest in the dissemination of results of intellectual work. The fact that such a possibility is not merely hypothetical confirmed by studies in the English Project RoMEO (Rights Metadata for Open-archiving). In a survey of more than 500 scientists found that the scientific community is primarily interested in protecting the moral rights of the author, and the limitations of traditional copyright thinks too excessive. This attitude authors to use their intellectual developments coincide with the official position of the International Federation of Library Associations and Organizations, which was outlined in a formal agreement signed in September 1996 during the 62nd General Conference of the Federation in Beijing. It points out that library users should be given the following options:

- "Read, listen or view privately, in the library or in remote access available in the free trade material the use of which is protected by copyright;

- Meet in view of the public copyright-protected;

- For private use or for educational purposes, alone or with the help of librarians to copy a reasonable electronic documents are protected by copyright. "

It should be emphasized that the legal basis of archival research and information resources of the Ukrainian segment of global computer networks, in a first approximation, we can consider the above-mentioned Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on the development of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine. Ability to attract foreign resources to archive now available licenses Creative Commons, whose development was started in 2002 the same organization led by law professor Lawrence Lessig Stanford University (Lawrence Lessig). For design Creative Commons is a license designer, where each author the opportunity to choose the option that it satisfies. The main selection criteria are:

- Need to identify the author of the work;

- The possibility of commercial (non-commercial) use;

- To create derivative works;

- The need for distributing derivative works under the same license under which the original was published.

Worldwide Information Resources Creative Commons License may be represented in three forms: as a page with icons and short explaining inscriptions (Commons Deed), in a legal text (Legal Code) and in the form of machine-readable metadata (Digital Code). Usually resource area coverage refers to Commons Deed, which allows any user to quickly familiarize yourself with the basic terms of material use. Links from Commons Deed is the law license text. Creative Commons readable metadata typically represented as a description that can be placed directly into an object which is protected by license. Presentation of Creative Commons licenses in the form of structured metadata schemas relates them to a wider class of legal metadata (rights metadata) and provides for automated processing of this information. Some methods for automatic data processing implemented today. In a test commissioned a search engine (, which allows you to refine searches using the materials. Decisive importance for the spread of Creative Commons licenses can provide metadata using Creative Commons-level institutional repositories (institutional repositories), supported by libraries, archival institutions, research and training centers in the formation of their electronic records. The question of the use of Creative Commons licenses for the needs of the scientific community investigated within the mentioned project RoMEO, which the authors concluded that the feasibility of using these licenses to describe the conditions of access to research materials. An important positive factor in this case is broad prevalence Creative Commons existence and services developed for the "untrained" users. In general license Creative Commons - is a tool developed and used. It is not a denial of copyright and its transformation into the form where copyright does not prevent the free flow of information. Noting that Creative Commons is an important step in solving the problem of copyright in an electronic environment must be at the same time emphasize the need for further development of this problem. Assessing positive License Creative Commons, it should be noted the extent of their lack in the Ukrainian segment of global computer networks. Patriotic libraries that are present today due to the Internet, you should organize their propaganda and start installation of the relevant licenses in the pages of their websites.

In view of this, the following conclusions on the main conceptual positions that should form the basis of archival research and information resources in Ukraine:

1. The components of the National Archives of network research and information resources should be:

- Scientific and socially important documents of the Ukrainian segment of global information networks;

- Foreign scientific resources in priority areas of innovation activity in Ukraine and socially significant foreign publications about Ukraine;

- Publications in Ukrainian and Ukrainian and Ukrainian institutions in the global information networks.

2. The technology is shaping the national archives of scientific information resources is advisable to use a combination of corporate training its thematic elements together top information from a centralized state institutions forming an integrated reference and search tools that should be implemented under the scheme, which involves a combination of detailed metadata about collections of electronic publications Full-text indexing of arrays available information.

3. As part of the National Archives should provide a centralized repository of data on the formation of the desk space of an electronic Ukraine. The component reference and search tools that it reveals, is regarded as one of the elements of the national bibliography.

4. The legal basis for the archiving of scientific information resources of the Ukrainian segment of global computer networks can be considered the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on the development of the National Library of Ukraine by Vernadsky. When archiving foreign resources today should focus on the license Creative Commons. Ukraine has a large number of libraries for different purposes and sizes - from regional to national, and from children to public school and research. To better meet the needs of library users in the information management of library resources authorities and local self-government stimulating interaction libraries and create conditions for the development of interlibrary loan, union catalogues automated database depositories. The organization of work in libraries at present is based on working with paper carriers that are bulky, inconvenient to handle and unreliable. To improve the efficiency of librarians need to make as much effort to maximize automation of their business. Libraries with superior information capabilities to enter into the development of information industry, enriching and expanding the range of content they produce information products, including in the field of bibliographic information along with the factual and analytical, and the creation of traditional and new products (funds, catalogues in paper and electronic forms, databases). The use of automated library information systems, advanced computer and internet technologies will transfer most of its work in libraries in an electronic format that will provide information quickly and accurately, organize and classify data readers, library collections, the presence or absence of certain literature, liaise with other stacks and libraries to order and deliver information on interlibrary fund literature. With the glut of information, the library more difficult to perform basic functions: fund forming, information and bibliographic Subscription Service. Improve the collection, preservation and access to information library can only change if its technical equipment. All this can be achieved if the library already, without losing time, begin to implement comprehensive programs of library automation processes.

Connecting regional libraries to the Internet simultaneously with the completion of a full cycle automation of bibliographic processes showed the formation of a new era in their activities. It was realized concept of universal access to information at the national and global world level. Task libraries and library professionals in this period were clearly articulated in materials IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) in the beginning of twenty-first century.). Multimedia Technology (MMT) have transformed the Internet and made it much more than a network, in fact - a global communication space where information is transmitted, it seems, is processed by various means that are available to read in any form, and also in the process of its creation and use. Environment poses new regional public library in addition to mastering the challenges MMT certain tasks from an organizational restructuring of its operations.  Therefore, in recent years attracted considerable attention MMT library professionals, because they are by far the most advanced uses of information and computer technologies in the field of librarianship.  Multimedia is a new information technology that is a set of techniques, methods and ways of production, processing, storage and transmission of audio-visual information based on the use of compact discs (CD - ROM). This allows to combine in a single software product text, graphics, audio - video, animations, 3D - graphics. And computers equipped with multimedia can play multiple types of information of different nature, affecting the prospects and shape modern learning. An important feature is also a multimedia interactivity, allowing the user to get feedback.  MMT is the most essential feature hypertechnology that allows to combine in a single system different units of information of any kind based on multidimensional associative relationships of Nature. Environment MMT can be described in terms of: Multimedia processes, multimedia systems, multimedia applications, multimedia services, multimedia resources, multimedia user, multimedia environment.  Means of multimedia technologies are divided into two classes based on interaction and through the use of multimedia technologies themselves.  The first class should include means of synchronous communication (video conferencing), asynchronous interaction, on-line mode (webinars, e-learning materials). The second class includes a variety of virtual objects, real movies, animated graphics and more.  To create and implement multimedia computer technology needed, appropriate application software (multimedia authoring) and design tools multimedia projects on the big screen - multimedia projectors.  Multimedia projector connected to a computer that provides dynamic image, different colours of objects and sound image. With their help, you can project images from a computer, VCR, TV on the big screen with a diagonal of more than 10 multimedia projectors characterized by high quality and intense light output. Their advantages - portability and mobility: the mass of some of them less than 2 kg. Almost all multimedia projectors have lenses with variable focal length, so you can set the image size without moving the projector. With the development of information technology almost monthly, new, more sophisticated models of multimedia projectors. They are brighter, lighter, more economical and cheaper.  However, these tools help only play one way or another some materials, but do not allow users to efficiently and directly interact with the object, as demonstrated. The latter can be solved by complex technical training, which consists of a multimedia projector, a computer and a touch-sensitive screen (SMART Board). SMART Board helps to maximize the use of a set of multimedia technologies (computer, projector, printer, scanner, etc.) during training sessions, meetings, seminars, conferences and more. By touching the surface of the board can control a computer, without detracting from the story, and while making the necessary notes and discharge.  SMART Board is a flexible tool, which combines the simplicity of an ordinary whiteboard capabilities of your computer. Combined with multimedia projector SMART Board is a large and sensitive to the touch screen with a diagonal of about 2 m at the touch of the surface of this screen, you can open any computer program show the information you need to take notes, draw, etc.. These screens can be successfully used in the work of librarians in the creation of promotional products, video lectures, workshops, trainings, seminars, demonstrations wider audience the necessary material. One of the indisputable advantages of multimedia is the ability to create their presentations based on the developed multimedia authors.

Copyright multimedia - is application software (applications), which has pre-defined elements to develop multimedia applications. Their use is a form of accelerated development of a multimedia project several times reduces the cost of the work. These tools differ in specialization, capability and ease of development. The most common in Ukraine is author multimedia application such as PowerPoint, which is part of an integrated package of MS Office. This type of copyright through the use of a powerful scripting language, a large number of templates, examples and ready graphics, user interface.  Improving the quality of library and bibliographic service is now determined using these new methods and means.  First of all, the widespread use of multimedia technology in the regional library can dramatically improve the efficiency of events.  It was established experimentally that the oral presentation of the material in a minute the listener perceives and is able to process up to one thousand conventional units of information, while "connecting" bodies of up to 100 thousand of these units. As clearly demonstrated the high efficiency of multimedia, the foundation of which - visual and auditory material.  Multimedia products (MMP) are opportunities for various aspects of service user library. In multimedia products we mean documents that carry information of different types and involve the use of special technical devices for their creation and playback (multimedia products created by means of MMT).  Modern computer programs (online tutorials, manuals, books, hypertext information and reference systems - archives, catalogues, reference books, encyclopaedias, testing and modelling software simulators, etc.) are based on multimedia technologies that emerged at the intersection of many fields of knowledge.  For software tools include slide shows, program scripts, flow control, design of complex information objects of hypermedia links (RTF, HTML, Hyper Method for Windows and others). For software products, which are widely distributed in libraries include Microsoft Power Point. The necessary elements of the libraries in the media space are "building a hypertext data" with the ability to create graphics using HTML (Hyper Text Transport Protocol), tools integration with Internet services (FTP, Gother, Telnet) and other features of WWW (World Wide Web) Internet, for example, VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) - a virtual reality modelling language.  Mykolaiv Oblast Universal Scientific Library by O.Hmyrova actively using tools integrate with web services. Yes, online library hosted interactive forms of communication with users as services "Virtual Reference", "Guestbook".  The site even has a section that is called "media / interactive" it is possible to view the photos, videos about the library. Also, there is the possibility for the user to visit the library Web-forum which allows you to share thoughts about particular events, issues, problems, and just talk to all comers.  Registering on the site, users can place on their articles, photos, videos, information and more.  Thanks (MMT) Librarian is a powerful tool for presenting information in heterogeneous form (text, graphics, animation, sound, digital video, etc.). As a source of illustrations in this case, the most useful CD ROM or HTML documents.  The quality and degree of mastery of the material, and the impact on the activation of cognitive activity guide, practice shows significant increases.  Using multimedia support during events significantly improves the perception and understanding of the issues under consideration, creating a more comfortable environment.  Activating the emotional impact on public events with the use of multimedia is the fact that:

First, the environment is created with a clear presentation of information in colour (psychologists proved that storing colour photography almost 2-fold higher compared to black and white);

Secondly, the use of animation is one of the effective means of attracting attention and stimulating emotional perception of information (together with the dynamic image replacement statistical sense only when the nature of the object, as demonstrated associated with the process dynamics, the ratio which can not transmit statistics);

Third, a visual representation of information in the form of photographs, video sequences simulated process has a strong emotional effect on people than traditional because it improves understanding and memory and physical processes (events) that are displayed on the screen.

Traditionally, in the course of events in the regional library use presentations - slide set presented in a specific order. The presentation shown on a large screen using a multimedia projector and illustrates the story librarian. As the content presentation can be used in different types of media (text, audio, graphics, animation, videos, etc.).  As guidelines for the use of presentations at public events in the walls of the library can use the algorithm, following which the librarian can successfully prepare for the event:

 - Identify the topic, purpose and type of event;

 - Make temporal structure of the event, in accordance with the main objective to identify the problem and the steps needed to achieve them;

 - Think through the steps of the necessary tools multimedia;

 - Reserves of computer software selected the most effective means;

 - Examined the feasibility of their use as compared to traditional methods;

 - Selected materials are evaluated at the time: their duration should not exceed health standards, recommended to view and take into account the interactive nature of the material;

 - Creates a temporal scan event;

 - The shortage of computer illustrations or program material is searched in the library, internet or is authoring program;

 - From found materials is presentation software;

- Testing activities.

You can also recommend planning a massive event with the use of multimedia, the following criteria guided the selection of information:

 - Meaning, depth and volume of information must comply with cognitive capabilities that category of people who will be invited to a mass event, consider their intellectual training and their age;

 - Presentation slides should contain only the main points (basic definitions, diagrams, animations and video pieces that reflect the essence of the phenomena that will be presented at the event);

 - The selection of material for visual description of a number of models to avoid long distance plans and small parts;

 - Strictly to avoid large text items. Unacceptable use to read text band or scroll buttons move from screen to screen;

 - Highlight text in the most important moments using bold or italics;

 - The total number of slides should not exceed 20-25 (more slides, shall be construed listeners);

 - Do not overload slides various special effects, or the audience's attention will be focused on them and not on information content slide;

 - The level of perception of the material is greatly influenced by the slide of colours, so you need to choose the correct colour presentation to slide well "was read";

 - To clearly calculate the time to display a particular slide that was presented in addition to events, rather than vice versa.

 Thus, multimedia library, you can:

 - Improve information event;

 - To stimulate the motivation of library users to search for more in-depth information on the subject of the event;

 - To increase visibility event by structural redundancy;

 - Make repeat most difficult moments (trivial redundancy);

 - Implement the accessibility and the perception of information due to the parallel presentation of information in different modalities: visual and auditory (permanent redundancy);

 - Organize your audience's attention in a phase of biological reduction (25-30 min after the start of the event and the final moments of the event) due to aesthetic and artistic fulfilment slideshow screensavers or by appropriate applied animation and sound effect.  

In a meeting readers associations also advisable to use multimedia tools, but there are some peculiarities. The presentation can demonstrate how to use the projector, and (during training in the training centre) on the screen. At such meetings should be used as a presentation of the event. In this case, the presentation can manage and librarian, and an active reader.  The basic scheme of multimedia mastering tool during meetings lies in the fact that the first subordinate their action logic defined by these means, then - aims and objectives of the activity, receiving new possibilities achievement of this activity. The first stage media tool or resource is the object of activity, during which the acquired knowledge of the work product, study the language and methods of interacting with them, acquired skills. In the second stage, this multimedia resource is converted into means of resolving any professional problems.  Recently, much attention is paid to creation and improvement of e-books, manuals, textbooks in various fields of knowledge. The important point here is the use of multimedia to enhance the visibility of information to an extent that does not go over using conventional "paper" books, textbooks. E-Books and manuals used with great success in various events organized by the library.  For example, in the department of documents in foreign languages ​​widely used Rosetta Stone. Rosetta Stone - one of the best in the world on software for learning foreign languages. This program has been used successfully by millions of people in 150 countries. Based on the Rosetta Stone language learning in a way similar to what child is learning their first language. That encourages the formation of associative rows between words, objects and situations rather than learning words with the letter A, B or C, as is customary in most broadcast programs.  Dynamic immersion language environment helps to think of language, learning, quickly develops the language skills and memory structures with which to communicate.  Experience with e-books and textbooks, software and electronic simulators shows that their effectiveness depends primarily on the presence of user feedback.  Promising avenue of using technology in the multimedia library is showcasing an animated three-dimensional object models. Three-dimensional animation will play back the dynamic phenomena that are hidden from observation. The main difficulty in implementing this direction occur due to the need for very sophisticated software and usually significant time cost to create one animated movie.  Demonstration video is one of the components of multimedia technology. Availability of special programs - video editor allows quickly mount film of captured fragments, apply sound to the visuals and add necessary comments - subtitles. The most significant in making the film is to have a quality script, and as a result, the logical sequence of presentation of the material, which is limited in time. Three-dimensional animation clips can be used as a regional library as part of a multimedia presentation, and beyond.

There are some kinds of abstraction:

- Identification - the formation of concepts by combining items related to relations of type equality in a special class (diversion of certain personal property items);

- isolation - a selection of properties and relations, is closely related subjects, and indicate their specific names;

- Constructive - distraction from the uncertainty of the boundaries of real objects (stop continuous movement, etc.);

- Actual infinity - distraction from incomplete (and completion) of the process of formation of an infinite set, it is impossible to define its full list of all items (such a set is considered as existing);

- The potential feasibility - a distraction from the real limits of human possibilities, limited life expectancy caused by time and space (infinity acts are potentially feasible).

The process of abstraction in the system of logical thinking is closely related to other research methods, especially with the analysis and synthesis.

Analysis - a method of knowledge that allows object-divide into parts to its detailed study. Synthesis, in contrast, is a consequence of the connection of separate parts or features of an object together.

Analysis and Synthesis of interconnected, they constitute a unity of opposites. Depending on the level of knowledge of the object and the depth of penetration in its essence apply analysis and synthesis of various kinds.

Direct, or empirical, analysis and synthesis are used at the stage floor acquaintance with the object. This is the allocation of parts of the object, revealing its properties, carried out simple measurements, fixation of direct data that lie on the surface. This type of analysis and synthesis makes it possible to know the phenomenon, but to penetrate into its essence it is insufficient. Reverse, or theoretical, analysis and synthesis are widely used to study the nature of the phenomenon. Here, operations analysis and synthesis based on some theoretical considerations, that is, assumptions and causal relations of different phenomena. Deepest to penetrate the essence of the object allows structural and genetic analysis and synthesis. This in depth study of cause-effect relationships. This type of analysis and synthesis requires selection in a complex phenomenon such elements of such circuits, which are the central, most importantly, that the decisive influence on all other parties to object.

Induction and deduction. Real science is possible only on the basis of abstract thinking, sequential reasoning researcher as judgments and conclusions. In scientific judgments are established links between objects or phenomena, or between their specific characteristics. Path to the judgment through direct perception of objects or phenomena and their relationships. The scientific conclusions of one judge changed the others, based on existing findings are made new. There are two main types of conclusions: inductive (induction) and deduction (deduction). Induction is the inference from private to general, from particular facts to generalizations when based on knowledge of objects of class concludes class as a whole. As a research method of induction - the process of research studying the phenomena in which a transition from individual facts to general provisions. Deduction - is this reasoning, which concludes some element of the set is based on knowledge of the general properties of the whole set. Deductive in the broadest sense is any output at all, in more specific and the most common sense-proof or withdrawal of approval (effect) on one or more other claims (links) based on the laws of logic, with dos tovirnyy character. In the case of deductive conclusion consequence contained in links hidden, so they must be obtained from them by applying the methods of logical analysis. Content deduction as a method of knowledge is the application of general scientific concepts in the study of specific phenomena. An important prerequisite for deduction in the practice of knowledge is a summary of specific tasks and the general shift from problem solving in general terms to some of its variants. Modeling - indirect, indirect method of scientific research objects of knowledge (direct study of which is impossible, difficult or inappropriate), based on the use of models as a means of research. The essence of modeling is the substitution of an object to others, specially created for this purpose. Under the model to understand the material sold or imaginary system, which, displaying or playing the object of research is able to replace it so that she becomes a source of information about the object of knowledge. Models can be physical, mathematical, natural, quite adequate to the phenomenon, process.

Among the methods of theoretical research we should be called historical, logical, systematic, cognitive, modeling, and others. system analysis methods that involve the study of complex objects, complex systems. It is widely used for computer analysis and solution of complex mathematical problems regarding process optimization and management of vehicle and large enterprises.

The methods of theoretical investigation should also include:

- The method of ascent from the abstract to the concrete;

- The method of idealization;

- Method of formalization;

- Axiomatic method.

The ascent from the abstract to the concrete - is a form of scientific knowledge. According to this method of thinking originates from specific to abstract, in fact, in thinking of him and - in particular in thinking.

The method of idealization - Myslene design objects that are not actually or practically unfeasible. The purpose of idealization: to deprive the real objects of some inherent properties and give (mentally), these objects are some unrealistic and hypothetical properties. This goal is achieved through:

- Multi-abstraction;

- Transition of thought to the final event of any property;

- A simple abstraction.

Formalization - the method of study of various objects by displaying their structure in the sign form by means of artificial languages, such as the language of mathematics. The benefits of formalization:

- It provides a generalized approach to solving problems;

- Symbols and provides a short definition fixed values;

- Unambiguous symbols (avoid polysemy of ordinary language);

- Lets you create symbolic models of objects and replace the study of real things and processes of learning models.

Due to its specificity, formalization provides a generalized approach to cognitive problems. In addition, the symbolism of artificial language provides clarity and brevity fixation values formalized objects of knowledge, provides unambiguous understanding of their structure (as opposed to ambiguity in the application of natural language).

The formalization is usually associated with the use of mathematical tools. As a method, formalization, reduces the study of real substantial party objects, properties and relations to the formal study of the corresponding characters (abstract objects) are widely used in mathematical modeling in many fields.

 Thus, the basic uses of multimedia technology in the library. How was marked above, the use of multimedia technology can significantly improve the efficiency of library and bibliographic work. However, along with the obvious benefits of such technologies, there are problems using them:

 - To create and use multimedia material necessary to know the librarian of the personal computer and the skills to work with special software;

 - The creation of multimedia products - a process that requires significant time and cost of knowledge from various disciplines;

-         Abuse of special effects and excessive amounts of information that are multimedia, can distract the process of the event;

- The level of user interactivity with multimedia program is still very far from the level of communication between people and in any case can not replace live communication librarian with the user;

- Required mapping between hardware and multimedia applications, as the latter have a high resource volume;

-  Anyway, some implementation problems of multimedia technology can be successfully resolved, for example, the involvement of experts in the field of multimedia technology and training librarians in special courses and seminars.

 In general, the media is extremely desirable in bibliographic services technology through its inherent quality of interactivity, flexibility and integration of various types of multimedia information, and by the possibility to take into account the individual characteristics of users and enhance their motivation to seek new information for them. Multimedia in the regional library is a promising and highly effective tool that allows arrays to provide information in greater volume than traditional sources of information in the order that corresponds to the logic of knowledge.
 Thus, the use of multimedia technology in the selection process, accumulation, systematization and transfer library users the right information and the organization of library and bibliographic services is one of the significant features of the library sector, emerging now.
Online education (English Online tutoring) - Education, carried out using the resources and technologies of the Internet. With regard to the concept of distance education is a species difference, more strictly regulate technical and technological specificity study - use of the Internet (remotely possible to study not only the Internet but also through local networks, video, etc.) Most of the existing training centres can be divided into three groups according to the degree of "immersion" in the Internet. The first group includes establishments, all of whose work is based solely on Internet technologies. Choice of course, its fees, classes with students, transfer of control tasks and test, as well as submission of interim and final examinations are carried out through the network. Similar training centres, sometimes referred to as "virtual universities", not so much because of high demands to the hardware and software equipment and level of training, and need significant initial financial investment. Second, the largest group, are institutions that combine various forms of traditional full-time and distance education with innovations in the spirit of the time. For example, some universities of their program courses transferred in virtual form, and centres of learning, based on Internet technology, at the same time do not give up the practice of eye examinations. The options here may be many, but in each case only a part of a computerized learning process. The third group includes learning centres for which the Internet serves as a communicative medium. On their site they post information about training programs (plans), workshops, and library catalogues. Featured in systems of virtual learning courses can be divided into two types: credit and non-credit. "Credit" is a course approved from an accredited institution. He enrolled student in the curriculum of any specialty, and is one of the steps towards a degree. (Each course in the credit hierarchy has its own weight.) The "non-credit" includes courses designed for more or post university education (e.g. for training) and do not lead to a degree. Educational institutions offering non-credit courses, in fact, constitute a system of "open education". They emphasize the value of the curriculum itself, without worrying about the prestige emitted diploma or weight of credit. As part of the Open Education created thousands of courses on various topics, including the development of languages and improving computer skills. On the Internet you can find are those schools that offer training to pass on the full program of the college, but did not provide an educational loan. Most teachers need to use Internet resources for updating and visualization of factual information about the country and the world. In addition, the Internet contributes to teacher training, allowing to observe the theoretical foundations of the new subjects and methods of teaching in schools in our country and in the world. To effectively use these opportunities to master technology teacher should work with diverse global network. Hence the need to introduce the faculties of pedagogical universities depth study of science. Today online education for subject teachers usually absent. The reasons for the slow development of the Internet by teachers is not so much technical as social. Even in schools that are connected to the Internet, the teacher often can not work online because they do not know how, or access depends on the teacher's computer or the school administration. In faculties of pedagogical universities online education is not set to the proper level. Low wages can not buy a computer teacher and master information technologies and Internet resources independently. None of the social and financial motivation to use the Internet in school education. Opportunities and Internet resources that may be used subject teachers in their work of teaching students basic theoretical knowledge include:

- WWW (World Wide Web);

- E-mail (electronic mail);

- Teleconference.

Servers World Wide Web may be useful:

- Teacher to find additional and updated information for lessons in preparation;

- Students to search for information in the preparation of various kinds of creative works (papers, abstracts, business games, educational conferences, etc.);

- In the course of the WWW and the teacher and student are faced with the challenge of finding relevant information. In doing so, they can help specific search engines. But in our time in the post-Soviet sector WWW still very few sites that specialize in school education.

Email may be used:

- Teachers to share educational information with their colleagues, Methodists, leading scientists from different regions of the country;

- Teaching students to share creative works with their peers from other schools, regions or countries;

- Teachers and students to share information during the realization of learning and implementing telecommunications projects.

Teleconferences can be useful:

- Teachers in the discussion in the on-line the most pressing issues of content and methods of teaching geography, and other important and interesting problems;

- With the participation of students in various educational and cognitive telecommunication projects.

Addressing the low level of online education we see in uniting the efforts of all its subjects, including:

- Subject teachers should seek independent mastery of skills on the Internet (to have a personal email address to participate in teleconferences, competitions, distance contests, networking projects, virtual teaching unions and other forms of exchange of experience and learning resources international web);

- The administration of schools and education authorities to expand the material opportunities and incentives for teachers to use the Internet to improve the quality of education;

- Training Institute to organize full-time-distance courses for Internet users subject teachers with a focus on the development of information resources worldwide network with professionals from different departments;

- Pedagogical University to make arrangements with staffing faculties and departments including computer classes and online education into the curriculum to the completion of higher education young teachers possess a web-based and focused on information resources of the specialty.

Concept and features of the educational Internet resource Traditionally in the Internet of "Educational Resources Online" is interpreted very broadly. For example, the All-Russia competition of network of educational resources "Education in RuNet" (, which is held under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Institute "Open Society" (Soros Foundation) and name accepted sites containing materials:

Institutions and organizations that implement education programs for children, youth and young people, providing guidance and information support of the education system and provide scientific-technical and innovation policy in education;

In the humanities, social, economic, exact and natural sciences as well as for teachers and pupils from the school curriculum;

Distance learning and testing, scientific and educational contests and online contests;

Digital libraries, catalogues, collections for the purposes of education and educational media;

Personal Sites of employees in education. Presented in this list all resources created by professional designers with varying levels of technical and financial support. Along with the site created by enthusiasts, the works performed by professional design studios. On the one hand, the Internet resource - a resource of global computer networks, therefore, is able to transmit digitally represented information over long distances through network equipment. Unfortunately, the speed of data transmission has physical limitations that entails restrictions on the amount of transferred files. Designers who create multimedia curriculum on CD, first set about creating websites, horrified by the number of constraints. After all, if the volume of a standard CD is from 600 to 750 Mb, for example, that allows you to record images on it are larger than 1 Mb, the volume of a single image on the site only in special cases can exceed 50 Kb However, the infrastructure of the Internet provides features such as:

1. Reach the widest possible audience (not only Russian but also international).

2. Operational update.

3. Using direct links to other Internet resources.

4. Widespread information about the existence of a resource using information retrieval systems on the Internet.

It should also be emphasized that, speaking of educational resources on the Internet, refers to websites (or rather, a set of hypertext documents), good structure which can significantly improve the performance of information. Therefore:

1. Creating a network of educational resources require special technical and conceptual approach. The method of creation is fundamentally different from the technology of other educational resources.

2. Any information taken from another type of resource to be appropriately transformed for inclusion in educational information resource on the Internet.

Educational online portals

Connecting schools to the Internet raises a number of issues that need immediate resolution. These include training and retraining of teachers to professional activities with the use of telecommunications to ensure quality of education information resources published on the Internet, and to inform teachers and students about how to access these resources. In this direction has already been done. The current system of teacher training in the field of education informatization established educational portals, developed and published online electronic educational resources from almost all school subjects. Educational portals created by the Internet, have an increasing impact on the efficient use of ICT in teaching students. The lack of a systematic approach to the allocation of information resources on the Internet, and the lack of uniformity in dealing with psychological and pedagogical, technological, aesthetic, ergonomic and a number of other problems in the development and use of educational information resources leads to practical failure to telecommunications to improve the quality of the educational process general secondary education. Partial solution to this problem can be achieved through the development and implementation of comprehensive educational information portals (Web-integrated systems). In this case, the portals, combining a major information resources that have a high educational value might be "entry point" in modern telecommunication system for all persons somehow related to education. Using portals can more effectively organize the work of teachers, because the portals are collected and systematized the most popular resources. Using them, teachers, students and parents will be able to access high quality learning and teaching materials, reduce the time required to search for information, study the features of classification of information resources on the Internet. Useful can be collected at the portals links to resources that contain the contact information of educational institutions and individual teachers, education news, announcements of competitions, contests, conferences and other events, which regularly participating teachers and students. Most of the highest-quality information resources, the use of which would increase the efficiency of secondary education in the educational catalogued online portals. At present, Russia has produced organizational chart creation of educational portals, which has its own characteristics. In organizational chart creation of educational portals include:

Horizontal portals (, Profile Vertical portals for disciplines: humanitarian, economic and social, natural sciences, engineering, teaching, health, agriculture, etc., specialized vertical portals: Publishing, a single exam, education news, etc.

Horizontal Portal "Russian Education" provides:

Navigation on all vertical portals;

Search multimedia information in the field of education on the Internet;

Personification and personal adaptation of the interface, either by user selects their own category (student, teacher, administrator, developer portal) and an indication of the level of education, and by designing your own interface;

Formation and sections of vertical portals by level of education;

Storing and providing information in the field of education (law, decrees, regulations, standards, lists of specialties, the federal set of textbooks, a database of universities, etc.);

Publication Daily Press on education;

News ticker in education;

Organization of forums, discussion groups, mailing lists.

Profile Vertical portals contain materials for all levels of education: elementary school, middle school, elementary vocational education, secondary education, higher education, further education, postgraduate education. Vertical Specialized portals should provide information support and services to address the specific problems of special federal level. For all vertical portals must be provided a single interface, common rules for updating and maintaining. Vertical portals are fully able to use the additional information provided by the upper horizontal portal, its search engine, mass personalization and adaptation interface. Distributed system of educational portals based on a set of n portals: horizontal, vertical and enterprise. Portals are divided at the national, inter-regional and regional. Enterprise portals / sites are divided into collective portals educational organizations (associations, consortia, etc.) and portals (often sites) schools. Thus, formed the Russian system of education portals may allocate more basic levels. The upper level is represented by a leading horizontal portal "Russian Education", which provides full-scale system of its copies in the federal districts. The overall structure and services portal "Russian Education" and its copies are the same, but the information content is subject to change due to the fact that the copies may contain specific regional components and multimedia resources. Filling this portal is managed by the combined editorial Joint Editorial Board, which provides an overall methodological guidance editorial boards of vertical and horizontal portals at all levels. In the upper levels of portal also includes all-horizontal educational portals, formed, for example, by level of education or associations owned or slices that are informational portal "s education." Educational horizontal portals at all levels rely on a system of vertical portals: specialized and specialized portals for general use. Profile portals catering industry knowledge and are usually formed from a number of related disciplines. Specialized portals oriented to perform certain functions (such as industry news portal and industry portal for testing). Vertical portals or their components may also be copied to the lower levels. Filling specialized portals (including the inclusion of their multimedia resources) is relevant specialized editors running the respective editorial boards. At the next level are regional educational portals that are horizontal and the lower level pool resources - websites and portals of universities, schools and other organizations. Important elements in the system are portals satellites associated with the formation and created within large independent commercial or non-commercial projects. The approach provides a complete system of educational portals and access it using information resources and content at all levels, from the federal personal and ending that should be considered in the construction, arrangement, assessment and exploitation of multimedia resources in educational portals . The priority directions of development of education information resources for the formation of all-and specialized educational portals are:

Subject subjects taught in general secondary education;

Economics, Management and Sociology;


History and Philosophy;

Physics, Chemistry, Biology;


Information support unified state examination (USE);

Information support learning processes in the CIS.

The development of educational information resources aimed at further entry into the substance of educational portals are usually considered basic legal documents, including:

State educational standards;

Sample program disciplines;

Lists of required textbooks in the disciplines of basic component state educational standards of education. In many cases, using search engines, categorize and catalogue, which is almost every educational portal, teachers and students can greatly simplify the search for information resources to the educational process. Finding resources through portals need to make, given that the portal uses a single professional approach to:

Placing these functional elements;

Functional and artistic design information pages;

System of registration and authentication visitors and editors;

News feeds;

Service publishing;

Mechanism attachments and more hypermedia information to published materials;

Contextual search technology and information for the correct operation of joint educational portal engine;

Indexation of the set of sites;

Mechanism consistent detail information;

Rules and techniques included in the information resources and educational portal of additional units and index.

Using portals, teachers must understand that developing a common policy in shaping the portal, and especially in the design intended for the information resources is a complex issue that still has not yet been resolved. This problem is compounded by the fact that the formation of portals through the benefits of modern telecommunications distributed in space and time: the costs of ICT are developed at different times by different creative teams, after which the finished products are integrated into the portal by sending data over telecommunication channels. As a result, teachers and students, as primary users of educational portals, lost a large number of heterogeneous information, based structure which is based on different criteria and principles of transmission, processing and presentation are subject to various manufacturing techniques. Many cases where the participants of the educational process has no justifiable acquire new advanced techniques operating with computers and software for each information resource, part of the Internet gateway. The use of audio and video information obtained via the Internet (using educational portals or not) has its own characteristics. In some cases, the playback of such information may give harm to students or lower the learning process. Modern teachers should know and anticipate the negative aspects arising from the use of information resources obtained from the Internet in general secondary education. In particular, some students are not able to use the one freedom that provide educational ICT tools. Often intricate and complex ways to present can cause distraction, both teachers and pupils of the test material due to various inconsistencies. In addition, the nonlinear structure of multimedia information resources in the Internet exposes users 'temptation' to follow the suggested links that may distract students from the mainstream of the schoolbooks. Every day more and more teachers began to work their own information resources development and other ICT tools, many of which fall into the Internet. Even if the teacher and is not engaged in their own development, it can use already created online resources, quality, educational effectiveness and ergonomics which in many cases do not stand up to scrutiny. And in fact, in both cases the teacher must master the basic requirements to be met by educational Internet resources in terms of minimizing the damage to health and psychology students. Teacher, working in schools should be aware that artistic decisions underlying the design used or created online resource is determined by the subject focus of the resource. This design ICT tools should be based on stylistic decisions hereditary with respect to local traditions and design of educational children's books used in the school and meet the requirements of healthy environment, and in the case of borrowing visual decisions taken in foreign media resources they need to adapt to local cultural traditions. Given the importance of minimizing damage to the psyche of students should be aware that the development and use of educational online resources unacceptable use of elements that may lead to ambiguous interpretations of aggressive, shocking, provocative visual and audio series. Making online resources should be made taking into account the fact that the learning resources are used such as the teacher and students. If necessary, as part of educational online resources should be allocated partitions design which focuses on children's perception based on the age group that will work with this release. At the same time, the design sections are intended primarily for teachers in preparation for the lesson should not contain complex scripts decision overloaded backgrounds, animated objects and similar items that distract from the work of Internet resources. It is important to design online resources provided the most effective perception of students of textual and graphical information is the main content of this electronic publication. In developing the design information pages should be avoided color and image making it difficult to read text information. A set of typefaces used to display basic text information shall be limited to fonts that provide easier perception of reading from the screen. Font style should provide both an easy recognition of the full character set as many individual elements, and the perception of any word or text block as a single visual image. In terms of the formation of a single area of ​​healthy schools, including, in particular, and minimizing the differences of electronic educational resources and regular training books, it is important to layout text online educational resources was carried out in accordance with the rules adopted in the printing industry.

The current stage of development of the education sector is characterized by the massive introduction of information and communication technologies in the activities of all participants in the educational process. Computerization is one of the main factors that make education improved. Developing content and teaching methods, changing role of the teacher, which is gradually transformed from a translator knowledge organizer of students to acquire new knowledge and skills. An important means of information are the educational information resources published on the Internet. No chance of timely and correct use of all professionals working in education is the key to effective training of students. Implemented a number of projects aimed at developing the telecommunications environment education. In many parts of the country greatly expanded range of educational institutions that have full Internet access. Significant progress has been made in the training of education and training of members of the emerging information society. Great work has been done in improving the curriculum and content of electronic publications and resources. As part of this work formed a system of educational portals developed by professional kits electronic educational resources created and developed websites that provide access to information resources virtually all school subjects.

Features of Internet resources in educational activities

Today's society is called information, which is a staple of information and knowledge. Information society seen as a landmark, trend changes in today's world, it is associated with the development of information and communication technologies and their products. Informatization and computerization requires individuals to new knowledge and skills to be adapted to the conditions of information society. A special role is now assigned to the Internet - means of disseminating information, environment of cooperation and communication between people, which is the largest and popular computer network, which offers great opportunities to use it effectively in education. Provide a variety of educational services, educational information, opening opportunities using various resources on the Internet, including distance learning courses, distance competitions and contests, libraries, repositories text, interactive encyclopaedias, dictionaries, translators, virtual museums and exhibitions, etc. in the preparation of future specialists. The Internet is a source of very different information. Based on the educational purpose it may be, for example, educational resources, many of which are now and in the future their number increases. Almost all educational institutions, research institutions have their own websites that are constantly replenished information. Useful Internet resources are used to obtain further education, career choice and scope, constant improvement of professional knowledge, skills and so on. Stop at some educational resources that are acquired most prevalent:

- Distance learning.

- Distance Learning (DL) - a form of organization and implementation of the educational process by which the participants engaged in educational interaction fundamentally and primarily extraterritorial. (Bykov)

Currently, most development has taken distance learning using Internet technology, which is called E-MDs and allows you to perform:

- Free entry for distance learning courses. In most cases, early learning or studying a course there are no conditions and requirements;

- Self-planning learning. Everyone has a choice in the study questions, topics and chapters, self-determination of the sequence of their learning by selecting potential courses;

- Freedom of time, speed training, lack of time constraints, the study of specific issues and topics, independent study of the timing of educational material, assembly testing, monitoring and classification of work;

- The freedom to choose the place of study.

As noted by Bykov, the main problems of creation and implementation of e-MDs is a computer-technological, organizational, managerial, psychological, educational, financial, economic, regulatory and legal. Along with the knowledge necessary comprehensive and balanced solve each of these problems should provide psycho-educational - as such, theoretical and practical solution which is currently the most difficult task to the required limits are not defined and therefore not properly solved. The development of ICT in the learning process, their use has provided an opportunity to study at any time, from any location where the access to the Internet.

- Deleted competition and contests. Development Olympiad movement in Ukraine, contests, such as "IT Planet", "Ecosoft", "teacher-innovator" and others., Thanks to the World Wide Web provides an opportunity to attend and participate in all contests, and be present in finals. The presence of all participants contests in one location became optional. Currently, there are a significant number of various network projects and competitions, the conditions for participation have on competition and everyone who wants to has the opportunity to take part in them. This is a mixed conducting online games and contests based on a combination of eye and distance when the final stage of a round eye. Using Internet technology removes the territorial limits and opens up unlimited opportunities to participate in distance learning activities for everyone. The most prevalent international online competition, conducted in several stages. Online competitions and contests are held in most of the individual items or on the basis of their integration. The participants held several rounds: theoretical, design your own project or software and practical, if present experimental part, the practice of virtual physical, chemical or technical experiments, performed research projects, creative tasks, etc.;

- Virtual Library is an organization by means of navigating and searching stores various electronic documents. Here is the definition of virtual libraries.  Virtual Library - digital or electronic library is defined as an on-line, which lies a common library to read books and access to other facilities, or it may be a site that offers links to various sites with significant plenty of information in the catalogue or archival form. The use of ICT can significantly improve the process of finding and obtaining the necessary Edition Reader Digital Library. Typically, virtual library provides its users with almost the same basic services and traditional library:

- Access to library catalogues with the organization of search and preparing a list of orders;

- Access to the library fund, which is represented by electronic analogues of various publications (books, magazines, newspapers, etc.)..

Virtual libraries can be a universal trend, publications on specific topics. Most e-library is created based on the traditional with the corresponding transfer them into electronic format and organization of remote access. The advantages of virtual libraries include:

- The use of library collections outside the library building;

- Availability of search optimization required publication including e-categorization and cataloguing;

- No restrictions on the number of simultaneous use of electronic library of documents;

- The use of electronic documents, followed by localization of fragments;

- Network directories and encyclopaedias.

- Yandex. Dictionaries ( - a search for the terms, definitions, articles, and translating words into 71st dictionary. All dictionaries are available. Yandex tape inquiry turns to tape a word to search for it in numerous dictionaries and references.

There are also other services that we offer online dictionary, encyclopaedia.

- Virtual museums and exhibitions. There are various definitions of a virtual museum, we give them. Virtual Museum - 1) collection of electronic artefacts and information resources, almost all of which can be formatted. A collection can include paintings, drawings, photographs, diagrams, charts, records, videos, newspaper articles, transcripts of interviews, numerical databases, and many other materials that can be stored in a file service museum, and 2) a collection of digital records , sound files, text documents and other data: historical, scientific, cultural, are available through the electronic media. Summing up the above definition, it can give the following interpretation: a virtual museum - Type Website optimized for display of museum materials, submissions can be from any industry, from arts and historical facts to virtual collections and relics. Virtual museums are a good example of the use of Internet technologies, on the one hand - the preservation, storage, safety, wide and fast, very easy access to items. Virtual museums are used in educational activities, providing access to all necessary items. Digital Collection Virtual Museum has excellent properties: virtual tour and advanced search. The most popular virtual museums is the Hermitage, the Louvre, the State Tretyakov Gallery, Museum of computers, the White House, the British Museum «Museum of Moving Images», «Radio and Television," "Madame Tussauds" et al., Which created virtual tours halls These museums. Yes Website: Museums in the world. Virtual art galleries and libraries include:

- Virtual Museum of Painting Small Bay;

- Museums of the world;

- Art gallery;

- Academy and Library;

- Virtual gallery;

- Short historical information;

- Search page.

Now, for internet museums allocated a special top-level domain museum. The great strength of the Internet made it possible for anyone interested to touch the masterpieces in real time.

Oddsei - What are the odds of anything.