for lecture ¹ 1
of science in modern society
Research. Classification of
Science as a social institution.
Science of science. Basic Science of science
Scientific research - the main form of
One of the main habitats of science origin was
ancient Greece. Socio-economic, cultural and spiritual conditions prevailing in
the city-states contributed to the destruction of mythological systems. The
level of production, social and economic relations caused the separation of
mental and physical labor. Some elements of scientific knowledge existed in
more ancient society, but they were isolated in nature.
The social function of science changed and evolved over human history as the man himself. There are three groups of social functions of science:
- Cultural and philosophical;
- The function of science as a direct productive force;
- The function of science as a social force.
At various times these features are presented in different ways, for example, in medieval cultural and ideological issues in the community were discussed in theology. In the Renaissance belief in the right formation was largely occupy science. For the current production is characteristic of wide application of scientific knowledge.
Complexity science has led a variety of definitions of its subject. The initial basis for understanding science is itself a scientific activity, scientific creativity, and the study of general and specific laws of nature and society.
The concept of science is based on a single epistemological and sociological approach to the disclosure of its nature. Given the fundamental importance of this concept in the methodology of scientific knowledge we give some standard definitions of science.
Science - a field of research aimed at producing new knowledge about nature, society and thought processes. It includes all the conditions and aspects of production. Namely, scientists with their knowledge and abilities, qualifications and experience-sharing and co-operation of scientific work, research institutions, experimental and laboratory equipment, methods of research, concepts and categories of, the system of scientific information, as well as the entire amount of knowledge acting as the previous link, or the means or the results of scientific knowledge.
The characteristic features of science:
extensive rotation and revolution periods of its development, dialectical combination of processes of differentiation and integration of scientific knowledge and the development of fundamental and applied research.
Functions of Science
• cognitive - needs people in the knowledge of the laws of nature, society and thought;
• practical and effective - continuous improvement of production and social relations as a direct productive force;
• cultural and educational - cultural development, humanization process of education and formation of a new generation, promoting further development and self-perfection of man as an individual and society as a whole.
In human history there were regular changes to "calm" and the revolutionary periods of science, which was in a single stream process that took place and in society. Therefore, it should be emphasized that science and its history can not be separated from the development of society as a whole.
The principles of dialectical materialist approach constituted a methodological basis for the classification of sciences of the third stage and determined the indissoluble unity of the principles of objectivity (coordination) and subordination, as well as methodological, epistemological and logical sides of public communication of science.
To solve the problem of classification of sciences used such approaches as methodological, epistemological and logical.
The highest form of science in Ukraine is the National Academy of Sciences and branch Academies (Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, etc.)..
Science has a complex hierarchical system of structural units to ensure compliance with its domestic and social functions. As part of these organizational forms of science carried out the following functions associated with managing research activities.
The essential elements of cognitive science is the scientific ideas, hypotheses, facts, and the means materialization of scientific ideas - books, maps, graphs, drawings, tables, methods and related materiel of observation during the experiment, methods of fixing the results of research and more.
Symbolic tools of science are formed by means of scientific terminology, measurement system, scientific symbols, various forms of "technical language" (graphs, tables, etc.).
The increasing role of science in society associated with complications of its internal structure, differentiation of a large number of specific disciplines, integration of the scientific work, increasing investment in its development, the increasing number of scientists, creating new scientific enterprise and so on. In such circumstances it became necessary to create a new social disciplines - the science of science itself, which was named - Science of science.
Science of science - this is one of the research, which examines patterns of functioning and development of science, structure and dynamics of scientific activity, the interaction of science with other social institutions and fields of material and spiritual life of mankind. Science of science fully reflects those common and significant processes, phenomena that characterize the different sides of science, their relationship and to determine the relationship between science, on the one hand, and technology, production and society - on the other.
Science of science, like any other branch of knowledge, performs the functions associated with obtaining and accumulation of material facts and their theoretical generalization and systematization, forecasting and development of practical recommendations.
Scientific research is the main form of exercise and development of science.
Scientific research - a special form of learning, a systematic, purposeful learning objects, in which the means and methods of science and that the forming of knowledge about the investigated object.
In general, research fall into two categories: basic and applied.
The famous aphorism of English philosopher Francis Bacon - "Knowledge - the power" is relevant for modern development. Humanity lives and in the foreseeable future, will live in an information society, the most important factor which - production and use of knowledge. Being a product of society, science also has a relatively independent social phenomenon and developed by its own laws. These include continuity, alternation relatively quiet periods and stages of scientific revolutions, the combination of processes of differentiation (selection of new sciences and integration, combining a number of science), mathematization, computerization, strengthening social functions. At the present stage of development of society science is a factor, without which not solved the social problems in all areas. Science, consequently, the product of society, makes him reverse effect, ie, performing social functions. Leading social function of science - explanatory. Science explains the structure of the world, reveals the basic laws of development. Possibilities of Science is great, but limited to specific historical social practice rights. Cognitive function of science focused on comprehension of the objective truth of things, properties, relations to reality. Description of tangible features to develop a method that system of rules' standards of practical ways of dealing with previously known things and phenomena. Prognostic function is manifested in the development prospects of economic, social, environmental and other aspects of future development. By the end of XX century. value of this function repeatedly increased due to problems arising in relations between society and nature, political, national and other relationships. Science outlook feature observed is that science provides objectivity philosophy, logic, knowledge base, determines the way to build a general picture of the world system and depth, without which it can not be a valid scientific worldview.
Science and Values
In the XX century science is experiencing rapid development, strengthening the connection with the production stimulates the deployment of scientific and technological revolution that has caused major social consequences. Yet in modern philosophy, sociology, history of science is different assessments of science and its role in society. In the past, always raised and discussed, does not harm human knowledge? Given different answers. Well-known words of the biblical preacher of Ecclesiastes: "The rich wisdom of much worth, and who multiplies knowledge, multiplies sorrow." In ancient society highly valued knowledge and thought (Socrates), that creature of God is only through ignorance of virtue. In the XVIII century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, studying the nature and history of morality, concluded that the development of science does not contribute to the moral progress of mankind. Ambiguity reviews of science can be traced in the writings of modern thinkers. German sociologist Max Weber said that the positive contribution of science to practical and personal lives of people in developing technology mastering life, methods of thinking, its working tools and skills in handling their treatment. At the same time Max Weber argues that science should not be considered the way to happiness or path to God, because science does not answer the question: what to do, how to live, whether in this world makes sense and whether it makes sense to be in the world? The English philosopher Karl Pop Lane believes the science is not just collecting facts, but also one of the most important spiritual achievements of our time, recognized the danger to human civilization "revolt against reason by irratsiona-develop realistic oracles." Karl Popper proposed to treat intellectual disorder people prone to irrationalism and mysticism. About highly estimated social value of science taught Hryhoriy Skovoroda, Taras Shevchenko, Pamphil Yurkevych, Ivan Franko. In addition to management, there are other immense and limitless field of knowledge management that does not cover the irrational, and called for the liberation philosophy of various communication 'Liaison with the science. Ideas of Nicholas Berdyaeva about the role and place of science in society has developed a modern American philosopher Paul Feyyerabend.
The book "Science in a free society," says Paul Feyyerabend consider science as one of the traditions that create culture. The very notion of tradition is clearly not determined, but easy to understand what is meant. By tradition are forms of social consciousness and a variety of practices: religion, art, magic, folk medicine, humanism, myth, astrology, rationality and so on. Paul Feyyerabend formulates ten provisions that characterize the tradition, and in fact, reveals the meaning of culture. Here are two of them: 1) is a free society in which all traditions afforded equal rights and equal opportunity can influence education and other prerogatives of power, 2) "free society insists on science department of the state. Paul Feyyerabend points out the danger that comes from science, which won in the culture of a special position. It is believed that the modern state is ideologically neutral in relation to tradition, but science is closely linked with the state. This situation Paul Feyyerabend considers normal. "Why - he asked - almost all science subjects are compulsory in schools? Why parents of six years child have the right to decide whether to teach the beginning of Protestantism or Judaism, but they do not have the same liberty in relation to science? Physics, astronomy, history must be studied- they can not be replaced by magic, astrology or the study of legends.
Representatives of postmodernism (modern philosophical currents) have questioned the function of science - the core of culture, science is accused of Objectivism, apart from knowledge of the subject. Output seen in the search for a new paradigm (pattern), reflecting the benefits of post-modernist. The growing role of science in society, therefore, has both its supporters and critics. Such a contradictory assessment of science born in the middle of XX century. Ambiguous assessment of science as a social value, increased criticism of science from the standpoint of humanism in the growing ecological crisis, the threat of nuclear war, the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident and others. Initiated in the science of self-reflection, active view of values. This subject has become a leading scientific publication. Traditionally, the science associated with true knowledge, which wants a scientist. In modern terms most scientists distinguish the value settings of science (in the form of more than personal education) and individual value settings scientist. Value to science instruction are ideals and norms of science ethos of science, humanistic content, objectivity, striving for true knowledge, the ideal of scholarship. In forming the values of scientists influenced by such factors as norms of science (scientific ideals, etc..) Concrete historical situation in society, place of science in the spiritual structure of society, espe-bystisni benefits, recognition or non-colleagues and others.
In modern terms deform some form of science, the process of destruction of elements ethos of science. Explained phenomena such great service to scientists in the Nazis and nationalists, the inclusion of scientists to the institutions of representative and executive bodies, the destruction of traditional ties when playing professional ethics, mercantilism. Community and authorities began to think less about the role of scholars in social development. From the standpoint of the discussed problem seems interesting article by Albert Einstein "The motives of scientific research." The temple of science - the structure complicated. Other visitors in the temple of science: people and spiritual forces that brought them there. Some are engaged in science with a proud sense of their intellectual superiority; for them science is so suitable for sports, which should give them the fullness of life and satisfaction shanolyubnosti. You can find the temple and the other: the fruit of their thoughts brought here in the offering only with utilitarian purpose. If God sent an angel to the temple and drove out those who belong to two categories, the temple would be empty. Thus, the values of science and scientific values are interrelated, but the degree of relationship, unity in individual cases is different.
In today's social development observed enhanced communication between science, technology and production. Science more deeply into a direct productive force of society. In this process of science is not following the technology and ahead of her, recognizes the current progress of material production, scientific knowledge permeates all spheres of public life, science focuses primarily on people, development of intelligence, creativity, holistic and comprehensive development. Growing relationship between science, society and culture in many areas, including the distinction of applied basic research.
Motives important to keep in mind to correctly judge the nature of science and the right to act, organizing scientific and cognitive activity in the whole state. One who treats science only as a direct productive force, who are trying to measure its performance return on invested rate, expect disappointment. What is useful to society, not always interesting scientist. There's a legitimate question of why society should pay the curiosity of some of its members - scientists? The answer is simple: this curiosity, not directly bearing fruit, eventually feeding the practical life. Curiosity is here a direct sense - love of knowledge, love as homage knowledge in itself, as life for the sake of knowledge. So science can not be completely autonomous. The practice of scientific research should be under the influence of special ethical restrictions and controls. On the other hand, how could stifle freedom of scientific inquiry, freedom of thought, without which knowledge is impossible? Conclusion one: he did not have to give up his high calling to serve the Truth, to be a knight of the Spirit, but must be aware of a member of society, to engage in discussion of social problems. Then knowledge and responsibility would merge into wisdom.
The subject and nature of science as a
National Doctrine of Education of Ukraine in the XXI century determined
that key factors for further development of education are:
- Unity of education and science as the modernization of education system;
- Adequate funding for science and support local schools;
- Fundamentalization education, intensification
of research in universities;
- Creation of educational content based on the latest scientific and
- An innovative educational activities in schools of all types and levels
of accreditation and ownership;
- Legal protection of educational innovations and results of scientific and
educational activities as intellectual property;
- Involvement in scientific research and school students gifted young
teachers;- Intensification of cooperation between
universities and research institutions, involvement of scientists of the NAS of
Ukraine and specialized academies to the educational process and research in
- Creation of scientific information space for children, youth and the
entire active population, the use of the opportunities for new communications
and information tools;
- Implementation of targeted programs to promote integration of education
- Leading the development of pedagogy and psychology, these sciences make
to the list of priority directions of science in Ukraine.
The emergence of science as human activity is closely associated with the
growth of intelligence people. Engels wrote that first job, and with it, and it
became the two most important stimuli while under the influence of which the
monkey brain gradually turned into a human. Work as activity caused by the
struggle for survival first, and then - the desire to forget. This is just one
of the driving forces of progress. On the other hand, when the first pleased
with the needs of man, wakes up the second driving force - interest, curiosity
to yourself, employees, the environment, to nature.
Therefore allocated two areas of human interest - the
material (the desire for comfort) and spiritual (the desire to satisfy
To work includes industrial human activities aimed at obtaining financial
product. In the spiritual sphere of activities include art, services and
science. They provide interest of intellectual (spiritual) wealth of society.
In Victor Hugo is a statement: "Science is continuously moving forward,
changing itself ... A masterpiece of art ever born. Dante does not cancel Homer
"and Pushkin wrote:" Age can move forward, but poetry is still in one
place ... Meanwhile, as the concept of work, opening large representatives
astronomy, physics, medicine obsolete and replaced by others every day - works
are true poets are forever fresh and young. "
The concept of science is based on the
content and function in society.
Modern scientists determine that:
Science - it is socially significant area of human activity, which function
is the development and use of theoretical and systematic knowledge of reality.
Science is part of the spiritual culture of mankind. As systems and knowledge
it covers not only actual data on subjects surrounding the world of human
thought and action, but also certain forms and ways of understanding them.
Thus, science appears as:
- Specific forms of social consciousness and the basis of which is a system
- The process of learning the laws of the objective world;
- Some kind of social division of labor; process of
knowledge production and use.
We can say that science has developed historically and is a coherent
system of concepts and categories related to each other using statements
(reasons) and reasoning. Of course, not all knowledge can be regarded as
scientific. It is not science and the knowledge that a person receives only a
simple observation. They are important in human life but not reveal the essence
of phenomena, the relationship between them, which would explain the principles
of the process phenomena and their further development. The purpose of science
is knowledge of the laws of nature and society, the impact on nature and a
healthy society results.
The subject of science is linked form of motion or the peculiarities of
their reflection in the minds of people. This material
objects of nature determine the existence of many disciplines. The
reliability of scientific knowledge is determined not only logic, but first of
all required test them in practice, because it is science is the basic form of
knowledge and the construction of a system of knowledge about the world and use
them in practical activities of people.
Historically, science has come a long and complicated
development of primary, elementary knowledge of nature to the knowledge of the
complex laws of nature, social development and human thought. The first
elements of science appeared in the ancient world because of the needs and
social practice and were purely practical. At the dawn of mankind improved
their living conditions through knowledge and converting some of its
surrounding world. A century and millennium and accumulated
experience and, in some way generalized and transferred to future generations.
An imitation of accumulated data gradually improved by establishing specific
rituals, traditions, and then, and writing. So there was
historically the first form of science (the science of the ancient world), the
subject of study which was the whole of nature in general. Originally
created (ancient) science is not divided into separate isolated area and had
features of natural philosophy.
Natural philosophy corresponded naive method of dialectic materialism and
natural, brilliant guesses when intertwined with fantastic fiction and about
the physical world.
In the V century. BC with ancient
philosophy of ancient science in an independent branch of mathematics knowledge
begins to stand out, which was divided into arithmetic and geometry. In the middle of the IV BC creation of astronomy.
In scientific - philosophical system of Aristotle and there has been a
division of science in physics and metaphysics (philosophical ontology). More
in this system are beginning to stand as independent scientific discipline logic
and psychology, zoology and botany, mineralogy and geography, aesthetics,
ethics and politics. Thus, the process of differentiation and
selection of independent science in its subject and methods of individual
disciplines. In the Renaissance, the period starts as a substantial
development of natural science, begin (mid fifteenth century - the middle of
the sixteenth century. Characterized by accumulation of
factual material on the nature of experimental methods. At this time
there is further differentiation of science , the
universities began teaching principles of fundamental scientific disciplines -
mathematics, physics, chemistry.
The second period in the development of science, which can be described as
revolutionary in science, takes time from the middle of the XVI century. the end of XIX century. It was during this period was made
outstanding discoveries in physics, chemistry, mechanics, mathematics, biology,
astronomy, geology. Geocentric systems and a world created Ptolemy in the
second century., Replaced by the heliocentric
(Copernicus, H.Haliley) were discovered gravity (I.
Newton), conservation of mass in its chemical transformations (M. Lomonosov, A. Lavoisier), discovered the basic laws of
heredity (Mendel). In the second half of XIX century. D.
Mendeleev was discovered the periodic law of chemistry. The real revolution in
natural science was as a result of the great discoveries: the creation of
evolutionary theory (Darwin) and the law of conservation and energy conversion.
The revolutionary processes taking place in science in the XVI - XIX
centuries. Led to fundamental changes in views of the
surrounding reality. The first stage of the revolution
(mid XVI century. - End of XVIII c.) Allowed to conclude that the visibility phenomena is the reality
that science and is intended to cover.
The second stage of the revolution (late nineteenth
century.) Led to the collapse of view according to which the
nature of its objects and relationships considered constant and such that goes
forever in one and the same circle. The decisive role played in the entire Kant
and P. Laplace, who created the cosmogonic theory.
At the end of XIX - early XX century. Natural
revolution entered a new, specific stage. Physics crossed the threshold of the
microcosm, was discovered electron (JJ Thomson, in 1897 laid the foundations of
quantum mechanics (M. Planck, 1990, revealed discrete nature of radiation. In the XX century. development of
science worldwide and is characterized by exceptionally high rates. Based on
the achievements of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and other sciences
were developed molecular biology, genetics, chemical physics, physical
chemistry, cybernetics, Biocybernetics and others.
In modern conditions dramatically changed the nature of scientific
research, the approach to the study of natural phenomena. In place of the
previous isolation of subjects comes to interaction, penetrate each other. Now
any object or phenomenon of nature study in a complex of interrelated sciences.
Rapid pace of development of science in the XX century. stimulated a Science of science that studies the laws of
functioning and development of science, structure and dynamics of science,
economics and organization of research, interaction with other forms of
material and spiritual life of our society.
Science is due to the needs of the XVIII century. When many chaotic
cognition data was sorted, selected and brought into causal connection and
knowledge become science and science closer to its end, is closed up: on the
one hand, philosophy, on the other - with practice. Mass production,
cooperation in large enterprises with the use of machines conquer
first large-scale forces of nature (wind, water) and direct production process.
The use of large scale natural forces of production, their
inclusion in the capital coincide with the development of science as an
independent factor of production. If the production process becomes a factor,
the scope of science, the science, by contrast, is a factor function of the
production process. The accumulation of empirical knowledge over millennia
allowed to develop tools, albeit very slowly, but in more complex devices.
Empirical era in the production lasted almost to the XX century. Having reached
a certain threshold of complexity, empirical technology has exhausted its
possibilities. The practical needs of society led to the development of
Science, which caused the progress in technology. A technique of science has
become more and more influence on production. Science began to become a branch of
social production, which produces necessary for the new information society.
The manufacturing process of new information acquired character accelerated
rendering, and science has developed rapidly, which meant the beginning of the
era of scientific and technological revolution.
In the scientific community are three research areas: classical, nonclassical (industrial society) and post-classical
(post-industrial society), which appeared respectively in the XVI-XVII, XIX and
the second half of XX century. Due to specific conditions of development,
classic science emerged in the fight against authoritarianism and scholasticism
and medieval thought, which is based were taken from
the methods of measurement of the object of knowledge, regardless of subject.
History of the XX century known as the century
rationalism and reason. About 500 natural and 300 humanities
and generated their equipment and technology declared its commitment to protect
the interests of human nature and society. In the industrial society is the
concentration of production and population, urbanization, the formation of
values-oriented efficiency, rationality without regard to the capacity of the
environment, ie, for any price. Society, reaching
extremely high levels of learning and development, has created a real threat to
In fact, for the first time in the first half of XX century, mankind has
reached critical levels in the second half of this century, crossed the
threshold of actually entered in the Great Crises. Experienced two world wars,
the atomic bombing, genocide, new diseases, exacerbated environmental problems
and it is questionable in absolute progress of scientific and technological
development path. After a strong economy based on scientific and technical
progress proved devastating for the biosphere, the environment deteriorated,
depleted natural resources, resulting in increased poverty, degrade all spheres
of social life is lost spiritual values.
This growth is achieved through new technologies, a shift from tovaroprodukuyuchoyi attendant to the economy, dominated by
production service information. Hence the second name of post-industrial
society - information, which is characteristic of knowledge and information
technologies, combined with high spirituality.
Today, in the context of environmental research man again appeared in the
center of science and the scientific world map preferred humanizing science,
for "a world, this man and that man and this world." Scientists W.
Heisenberg, noting the trend of science, noted that the deeper and lookinf
forward to the universe, the more we see it in person. Thus, understanding of
the creative human activity is a crucial factor for the development of the biosphere transformation
that will satisfy all of the material, social and aesthetic needs of humanity.
Post-neoclassical science provides network relationships in which person is
included. Characterized post-neoclassical science is "human oriented ." The significance of modern science is
characterized by: the knowledge of place and role of human systems and the Man
- Nature - Society.
Awareness of human ignorance in any field of life is an objective necessity
of gaining new knowledge and transformation of infinite total harmony with
Knowledge - is a proven practice, the result of understanding reality, its
adequate reflection in the mind. The process of movement of human thought from
ignorance to knowledge is called knowledge, which is based on reproduction in
the mind of objective reality. This interaction between subject
and object, resulting in new knowledge gap, a reflection of objective reality
in human consciousness in the process in practice (industrial, intellectual,
All science and human knowledge to achieve reliable
knowledge that reflects reality. Inquest as there are laws of
science, theoretical statements, opinions, teachings, practices, and confirmed
existing objectively, regardless of work and discovery scientists. But at the
same scientific knowledge may be relative, absolute and a priori.
Relative observed incompleteness of knowledge under the image and object.
Absolute knowledge - it is a complete, comprehensive rendering of
generalized concepts of object that fully match the image and object in a
certain period of learning.
Priori knowledge - those that are not based on experience,
and prior to him and suggest ways of acquiring scientific knowledge.
Scientific knowledge - this study is characterized by its specific goals
and objectives, methods of obtaining and verification of new knowledge. It is
designed to track practice, provide the theoretical basis for solving practical
problems. The driving force of knowledge is experience, it gives the science
facts, which requires theoretical understanding and justification, which
creates a solid basis for understanding the phenomena of objective reality. The
way knowledge is determined from the living contemplation to abstract
thinking and the last - to practice. This is the main feature of scientific
Knowledge can be sensual irrational.
Perceptual knowledge is the result of direct communication with the human
environment and is implemented through the elements of sensory cognition:
sensation, perception, representation and presentation.
Sense - is reflected in the human brain properties of objects or phenomena
of the objective world, perceived his authority and flair.
Perception - is reflected in the human brain properties of objects or
phenomena that are perceived by the senses in him a certain period of time and
form the original sensuous image of the object, phenomenon.
Introduction - a secondary image of the subject, the phenomenon
that at a given time do not apply to sensitive human organs, but always
The idea - a systematization of different representations
in the human brain, combining them into a coherent picture images.
Rational knowledge - is indirect and generalized reflection in the human
brain material properties of causal relationship and regular communication
between objects and phenomena. It promotes awareness of the nature of the
process, reveals patterns of development. The form of rational knowledge is
abstract thinking, different considerations of human, structural elements made
of the concept, judgment, reasoning.
Therefore, science should answer the questions: What? How much? Why? What?
How? The question: How do I do? corresponding method
The question: What to do? – Practice
Answers to these questions lead to the immediate goals of science -
description, explanation and prediction of processes and phenomena of objective
reality that is the subject of its study on the basis of laws which it opens,
that is, in a broad sense - theoretically true. Science, as a specific activity
aimed at obtaining new theoretical and applied knowledge of the laws of nature,
society and thought, characterized by the following key features:
- The existence of systematic knowledge (ideas, theories, concepts, laws,
principles, hypotheses, basic concepts, facts);
availability of scientific problems, object
and subject of research, the practical significance of the process being
Thus, the emergence of science as a human activity, is closely associated
with the natural process of social division of labor, increasing intelligence
of people desire them to the knowledge of the unknown, of all things, which is
the basis of their existence.
The process of scientific research, its characteristics
and stages of research.
The process of learning involves the accumulation of facts. Without
systematization and generalization, without logical osmyslyuvannya
facts can not be no science, although the facts necessary scientist as air, but
taken separately they are not science. The facts are part of scientific
knowledge, if they act in a systematic summary.
Any scientific study, from creative concept to finished scientific work is
carried out individually. Based on the total and partial methods, the scientist
gets the answer to that where to begin to study how to generalize the facts and
which way to go to the conclusions. It is logical that the following
- Do not accept the truth that is reliable and axiomatic;
- Difficult questions divided into as many parts as need to address,
begin the study of the simplest and most convenient for knowledge of things to
complex and difficult;
- Stop at all the details on all pay attention to make sure that nothing
has been released;
In science, not enough to establish a new scientific fact is very important
to give him an explanation from the standpoint of science, to show his general
cognitive theoretical or practical importance, and early to predict previously
unknown new processes and phenomena. Research - is especially well-planned
activities. Thus every scientist is entitled to their opinion, should have an
opinion, which of course should be considered.
Science is social in origin, development and use. Any scientific discovery
is the total work, total reproduction of human progress in the knowledge of the
Therefore, scientific study requires not only represent
good faith or merely describe, and understand their attitude to what we
know or experience, or from the previous study. That is, determine the quality
of the unknown through the known.
The form of the development of science is the scientific research that is focused
study using scientific methods of phenomena and processes, analysis of the
impact of these various factors as well: the study of interaction phenomena in
order to obtain convincingly proven and useful for science and practice
decisions. It is characterized by objectivity, reproducibility, and accuracy of
The aim of research is thorough, impartial and thorough study of phenomena
and processes, their characteristics, relations based on science developed in
the principles and methods of learning and obtaining useful results for human
activity, introduction of the production to enhance its effectiveness. In
scientific research it is important to consider all focusing on the major, the
key question topic. One can not consider adverse facts which at first glance
Research study - is not only watch but also to see some particular notice,
great in small, not deviating from the main topic of research.
The results of research the better, the higher the level
of scientific conclusions, generalizations, the higher their credibility and
With purpose to the needs of practice research can be divided into:
- Fundamental (theoretical);
The fundamental (theoretical) research means: basic, basic. And scientific
theoretical and experimental work aimed at learning the laws that govern the
behavior and interaction of basic structures of nature, society, man.
Academician of the USSR A.V. Gaponov-Hryehov
(1926) considered that the development of natural science and modern technology
largely depends on progress in the basic sciences - mathematics and theoretical
physics. Combining research efforts of these disciplines has repeatedly led to
the formation of deep concepts whose importance goes far beyond the purely
Applied research - scientific and technological research activities aimed
at using the results of basic research for a variety of practical problems on
which developed new equipment, new machines, methods of production processes
and so on., In order to receive direct economic benefit in particular
industries. Applied research are planning, and
fundamental results difficult to plan. In addition, application development can
be implemented in industry and bring economic benefit. Fundamental results are
not immediate profits, but their use may take decades.
In conducting research distinguish the concept of "object" and
"subject" of knowledge and research.
The object of study is called that the focus of cognitive activity of the
researcher. This is a process or phenomenon that generates the problem
situation and selected for study.
The object of study is investigated for a specific purpose properties
characteristic of scientific knowledge, the definition of a
"perspective" as the study assumptions about the most essential for
the study of selected problems of object characteristics. When
the subject of research is understood that within the object and always the
same research topic. The same object can be the subject of various
studies and even research areas. The object and purpose of the study, as a
category of scientific process, correlate with each other as total and partial.
The object of research is the surrounding material world
and shape its reflection in human minds that exist independently of our
consciousness, are selected for the purpose of the study.
Depending on the degree of difficulty is simple and complex
objects of research, the difference between them is determined by the
number of items and type of connection between them. For example, a simple
object of research in pedagogy is the level of information provision of
training. complex - the effectiveness of the learning
In the first case study of educational literature, according to the list of
subjects of the curriculum, in the second - is determined by many factors
influence the outcome of training (quality of teaching, learning technologies,
the level navchenosti and navchalnosti
Choosing the right facility environmental study of the material world for
the purpose of research contributes to the validity of research results.
The task of the researcher is to identify factors that affect the object of
research, selection and focusing on the most essential ones. The criteria for selection is the purpose of research and
quantitative level of accumulated evidence in this direction. Selection of the
most significant factors that affect the object of research is of great
practical importance, as affecting the degree of reliability of survey results.
If any significant factor not taken into account, the findings obtained in a
study may be false, incomplete or completely wrong. Identification of
significant factors is easier if the research is based on a well worked out
theory. If the theory does not provide answers to these questions, using
hypotheses, scientific ideas generated during previous study object of study.
Consequently, the recipient's environmental impact on the object of
research, the more accurate the results of scientific research. Environment - a
fact that affects the object of study.
Taking away the object, defining the subject and the factors affecting the
causal results of an object, define its parameters, ie
complete the study according to the goal.
Scientific research should be considered in continuous development based on
communication theory with practice. Important role in scientific research play
a cognitive task of empirical and theoretical direction.
Empirical problems are solved by observation, experiment, measurement,
Theoretical tasks aimed to study and identify the causes, relationships,
relationships that allow you to set the behavior of an object, identify and
examine its structure, characteristics, based on science developed in the
principles and methods of learning. It dominates the use of axiomatic method,
system, structural and functional analysis, mathematical modeling.